Organic Rankine Cycle
What is An Organic Rankine Cycle?
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What is An Organic Rankine Cycle?
History of the Carnot Cycle, Rankine Cycle and Brayton Cycle
What is the Carnot Cycle?
The Carnot Cycle has been described as being the most efficient thermal cycle possible, wherein there is no heat losses, and consisting of four reversible processes, two isothermal and two adiabatic. It has also been described as a cycle of expansion and compression of a reversible heat engine that does works with no loss of heat.
What is the Rankine Cycle?
The Rankine cycle is a thermodynamic cycle used to generate electricity in many power stations, and is the real-world approach to the Carnot cycle. Superheated steam is generated in a boiler, and then expanded in a steam turbine. The steam turbine drives a generator, to convert the work into electricity. The remaining steam is then condensed and recycled as feed-water to the boiler. A disadvantage of using the water-steam mixture is that superheated steam has to be used, otherwise the moisture content after expansion might be too high, which would erode the turbine blades.
What is the Brayton Cycle?
A turbine operates on the principal of the Brayton Cycle, which is
defined as a constant pressure cycle, with four basic operations which it accomplishes simultaneously and continuously for an uninterrupted flow of power.
Diesel sought to apply Carnot’s theory to the internal combustion engine. The efficiency of the Carnot cycle increases with the compression ratio—the ratio of gas volume at full expansion to its volume at full compression. Nicklaus Otto invented an internal combustion engine in 1876 that was the predecessor to the modern gasoline engine. Otto’s engine mixed fuel and air before their introduction to the cylinder, and a flame or spark was used to ignite the fuel-air mixture at the appropriate time.2 However, air gets hotter as it is compressed, and if the compression ratio is too high, the heat of compression will ignite the fuel prematurely. The low compression ratios needed to prevent premature ignition of the fuel-air mixture limited the efficiency of the Otto engine.
Rudolph Diesel wanted to build an engine with the highest possible compression ratio. He introduced fuel only when combustion was desired and allowed the fuel to ignite on its own in the hot compressed air. Diesel’s engine achieved an efficiency higher than that of the Otto engine and much higher than that of the steam engine. It also eliminated the trouble-prone electric-spark ignition system. Diesel received a patent in 1893 and demonstrated a workable engine in 1897.3 Today, diesel engines are classified as “compression-ignition” engines, and Otto engines are classified as “spark-ignition” engines.
* Some of
the above from the United States Department of Energy
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