Cogeneration Technologies
An EcoGeneration Solutions LLC. Company
E-mail: info @ cogeneration .net

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Waste To Energy
www.WasteToEnergy.net

 






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The Renewable Energy Institute

email:  info@RenewableEnergyInstitute.org

 

We provide "turnkey" products and services which includes renewable energy technologies, "waste to energy," "waste to watts™" and waste heat recovery solutions.  Unlike most companies, we are equipment supplier/vendor neutral. This means we help our clients select the best equipment for their specific application. This approach provides our customers with superior performance, decreased operating expenses and increased return on investment. 

We provide Anaerobic Digester, Anaerobic Lagoon, Biogas Recovery, BioMethane, Biomass Gasification, and Landfill Gas To Energy, project development services. Unlike most companies, we are equipment supplier/vendor neutral. This means we help our clients select the best equipment for their specific application. This approach provides our customers with superior performance, decreased operating expenses and increased return on investment.

Cogeneration Technologies, located in Houston, Texas, provides the following power and energy project development services: 

  • Project Engineering Feasibility & Economic Analysis Studies  

  • Engineering, Procurement and Construction

  • Environmental Engineering & Permitting 

  • Project Funding & Financing Options; including Equity Investment, Debt Financing, Lease and Municipal Lease

  • Shared/Guaranteed Savings Program with No Capital Investment from Qualified Clients 

  • Project Commissioning 

  • 3rd Party Ownership and Project Development

  • Long-term Service Agreements

  • Operations & Maintenance 

  • Green Tag (Renewable Energy Credit, Carbon Dioxide Credits, Emission Reduction Credits) Brokerage Services; Application and Permitting

We are Renewable Energy Technologies specialists and develop clean power and energy projects that will generate a "Renewable Energy Credit," Carbon Dioxide Credits  and Emission Reduction Credits.  Some of our products and services solutions and technologies include; Absorption Chillers, Adsorption Chillers, Automated Demand Response, Biodiesel Refineries, Biofuel Refineries, Biomass Gasification, BioMethane, Canola Biodiesel, Coconut Biodiesel, Cogeneration, Concentrating Solar Power, Demand Response Programs, Demand Side Management, Energy Conservation Measures, Energy Master Planning, Engine Driven Chillers, Solar CHP, Solar Cogeneration, Rapeseed Biodiesel, Solar Electric Heat Pumps, Solar Electric Power Systems, Solar Heating and Cooling, Solar Trigeneration, Soy Biodiesel, and Trigeneration.

Unlike most companies, we are equipment supplier/vendor neutral. This means we help our clients select the best equipment for their specific application. This approach provides our customers with superior performance, decreased operating expenses and increased return on investment. 

For more information: call us at: 832-758-0027 

Or, visit some of our following sites for more information: 

For more information: call us at: 832-758-0027

What is "waste-to-energy"?

Waste-to-energy facilities produce clean, renewable energy through the combustion of municipal solid waste in specially designed power plants equipped with the most modern pollution control equipment to clean emissions. Trash volume is reduced by 90% and the remaining residue is regularly tested and consistently meets strict EPA standards allowing reuse or disposal in landfills. There are 89 waste-to-energy plants operating in 27 states managing about 13 percent of America's trash, or about 95,000 tons each day. Waste-to-energy facilities generate about 2,500 megawatts of electricity to meet the power needs of nearly 2.3 million homes, and the facilities serve the trash disposal needs of more than 36 million people. The $10 billion waste-to-energy industry employs more than 6,000 American workers with annual wages in excess of $400 million.

How does waste-to-energy reduce Greenhouse Gases emitted into the atmosphere?

The use of waste-to-energy technology prevents the release of forty million metric tons of greenhouse gases in the form of carbon dioxide equivalents that otherwise would be released into the atmosphere on an annual basis, according to an analysis developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Integrated Waste Services Association (IWSA) using EPA's Decision Support Tool program. Annual reporting by IWSA to the U.S. Department of Energy's Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program confirms that waste-to-energy also prevents the release each year of nearly 24,000 tons of nitrogen oxides and 2.6 million tons of volatile organic compounds from entering the atmosphere.

America's waste-to-energy facilities dispose of trash, and are an alternative to land disposal that releases methane (a potent greenhouse gas) as trash decomposes. Waste-to-energy also produces electricity, lessening reliance on fossil fuel power plants that release carbon dioxide, another greenhouse gas, into the atmosphere when coal or oil are burned. Operation of waste-to-energy plants avoid the release of methane that otherwise would be emitted when trash decomposes, and the release of CO2 that would be emitted from generating electricity from fossil fuels.

In addition to the analysis using EPA's Decision Support Tool, and eight years of reporting by the IWSA to the U.S. Department of Energy, a detailed, project analysis of a facility's contribution to solving the threat of global warming has been completed for a 1500-ton-per-day waste-to-energy facility in the northeast. Researchers used information regarding alternative landfill disposal, plant emissions, trash composition and other plant-specific data and analyzed the information using the EPA Decision Support Tool. The study determined that about 270,000 tons of carbon dioxide equivalent emissions are avoided annually because of this one plant's operations. Company officials currently are talking to greenhouse gas credit brokers about marketing the reductions to buyers of GHG credits.

Waste-to-Energy Greenhouse Gas Avoidance Calculations

Assumptions

11 million metric tons carbon equivalent (MCTE)1

= 36 million metric tons CO2 equivalent2

 

= 39.6 million tons CO2 equivalent3

@ 33 million tons / year4 (Amount of municipal solid waste managed by waste-to-energy used to calculate the estimate, above, of 11 million MCTE)

MSW = Municipal Solid Waste

Waste-to-Energy Greenhouse Gas Avoidance Calculations equation number 1

 

Waste-to-Energy Greenhouse Gas Avoidance Calculations equation number 2


@ 550 kWh / ton MSW5

Waste-to-Energy Greenhouse Gas Avoidance Calculations equation number 3

 

Waste-to-Energy Greenhouse Gas Avoidance Calculations equation number 4


THEREFORE, 1 megawatt hour generated by waste-to-energy technology equals 2 metric tons of CO2 equivalent or 2.2 standard tons of CO2 equivalent.

1The Impact of Municipal Solid Waste Management on Greenhouse Gas Emissions In the United States, by K.A. Weitz, Research Triangle Institute, S.A. Thorneloe, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and M. Zannes, IWSA, 2001 discusses the overall contribution, including waste-to-energy's part, in reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from proper solid waste management practices. The analysis concludes that emissions of 11 million metric tons carbon equivalent was avoided on an annual basis by the use of waste-to-energy technology.

2The conversion of carbon equivalent to CO2 equivalent is based on the ration of the molecular weight of carbon to the molecular weight of CO2, or a factor of 3.67.

31 metric ton = 1.1 standard or short ton

4The Impact of Municipal Solid Waste Management on Greenhouse Gas Emissions In the United States, Ibid. The analysis calculated that 11 million metric tons of carbon equivalent was avoided by the disposal and electricity generation from 33 million tons of trash managed by waste-to-energy in one year. The Integrated Waste Services Association reported that 33 million tons of trash was managed in 2002 by waste-to-energy technology in the United States.

5The average energy conversion rate of waste-to-energy plants is estimated by facility operators and vendors associated with the Integrated Waste Services Association (IWSA), the national trade group for the waste-to-energy industry.

Flare Gas Recovery, Vapor Recovery, Waste to Energy and Vapor Recovery Units recover valuable "waste" or vented fuels that can be used to provide fuel for an onsite power generation plant.  Our waste-to-energy and waste to fuel systems significantly or entirely, reduces your facility's emissions (such as NOx , SOx, H2S, CO , CO2 and other Hazardous Air Pollutants/Greenhouse Gases) and convert these valuable emissions from an environmental problem into a new cash revenue stream and profit center.

Flare gas recovery and vapor recovery units can be located in hundreds of applications and locations.  At a Wastewaster Treatment System (or Publicly Owned Treatment Works - "POTW") gases from the facility can be captured from the anaerobic digesters, and manifolded/piped to one of our onsite power generation plants, and make, essentially, "free" electricity for your facility's use.  These associated "biogases" that are  generated from municipally owned landfills or wastewater treatment plants have low btu content or heating values, ranging around 550-650 btu's.  This makes them unsuitable for use in natural gas applications. When burned as fuel to generate electricity, however, these gases become a valuable source of "renewable" power and energy for the facility's use or resale to the electric grid. 

Additionally, if heat (steam and/or hot water) is required, we will incorporate our cogeneration or trigeneration system into the project and provide some, or all, of your hot water/steam requirements. Similarly, at crude oil refineries, gas processing plants, exploration and production sites, and gasoline storage/tank farm site, we convert your facility's "waste fuel" and environmental liabilities into profitable, environmentally-friendly solutions.

Our Flare Gas Recovery and Vapor Recovery units that are designed and engineered for these specific applications.  It is important to note that there are many internal combustion engines or combustion turbines that are NOT suited for these applications.  Our systems are engineered precisely for your facility's application, and our engineers know the engines and turbines that will work as well as those that don't.  More importantly, we are vendor and supplier neutral!  Our only concerns are for the optimum system solution for your company, and we look past brand names and sales propaganda to determine the optimum system, which may incorporate either one or more; gas engine genset(s) or gas turbine genset(s), in cogeneration or trigeneration mode - in trigeneration mode, we incorporate absorption chillers to make chilled water for process or air-conditioning, fuel gas conditioning equipment and gas compressor(s). 

Our turn-key systems includes design, engineering, permitting, project management, commissioning, as well as financing for our qualified customers. Additionally, we may be interested in owning and operating the flare gas recovery or vapor recovery units. For these applications, there is no investment required from the customer.

For more information, please provide us with the following information about the flare gas or vapor:   

  • Type of gas being flared or vented (methane, bio-gas, landfill, etc.).

  • Chromatograph Fuel/Gas analysis which provides us with the btu's (heating value) and the composition of the gas and its' impurities such as methane (and the percentage of methane), soloxanes, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, hydrogen sulfide, and any other hydrocarbons. 

  • Total amount of gas available, from all sources, at the facility.  

Waste Heat Recovery 

Many industrial processes generate large amounts of waste energy that simply pass out of plant stacks and into the atmosphere or are otherwise lost. Most industrial waste heat streams are liquid, gaseous, or a combination of the two and have temperatures from slightly above ambient to over 2000 degrees F. Stack exhaust losses are inherent in all fuel-fired processes and increase with the exhaust temperature and the amount of excess air the exhaust contains. At stack gas temperatures greater than 1000 degrees F, the heat going up the stack is likely to be the single biggest loss in the process. Above 1800 degrees F, stack losses will consume at least half of the total fuel input to the process. Yet, the energy that is recovered from waste heat streams could displace part or all of the energy input needs for a unit operation within a plant. Therefore, waste heat recovery offers a great opportunity to productively use this energy, reducing overall plant energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. 

Waste heat recovery methods used with industrial process heating operations intercept the waste gases before they leave the process, extract some of the heat they contain, and recycle that heat back to the process. 

Common methods of recovering heat include direct heat recovery to the process, recuperators/regenerators, and waste heat boilers. Unfortunately, the economic benefits of waste heat recovery do not justify the cost of these systems in every application. For example, heat recovery from lower temperature waste streams (e.g., hot water or low-temperature flue gas) is thermodynamically limited. Equipment fouling, occurring during the handling of “dirty” waste streams, is another barrier to more widespread use of heat recovery systems. Innovative, affordable waste heat recovery methods that are ultra-efficient, are applicable to low-temperature streams, or are suitable for use with corrosive or “dirty” wastes could expand the number of viable applications of waste heat recovery, as well as improve the performance of existing applications. 

Various Methods for Recovery of Waste Heat

Low-Temperature Waste Heat Recovery Methods – A large amount of energy in the form of medium- to low-temperature gases or low-temperature liquids (less than about 250 degrees F) is released from process heating equipment, and much of this energy is wasted. 

Conversion of Low Temperature Exhaust Waste Heat – making efficient use of the low temperature waste heat generated by prime movers such as micro-turbines, IC engines, fuel cells and other electricity producing technologies. The energy content of the waste heat must be high enough to be able to operate equipment found in cogeneration and trigeneration power and energy systems such as absorption chillers, refrigeration applications, heat amplifiers, dehumidifiers, heat pumps for hot water, turbine inlet air cooling and other similar devices. 

Conversion of Low Temperature Waste Heat into Power –The steam-Rankine cycle is the principle method used for producing electric power from high temperature fluid streams. For the conversion of low temperature heat into power, the steam-Rankine cycle may be a possibility, along with other known power cycles, such as the organic-Rankine cycle. 

Small to Medium Air-Cooled Commercial Chillers – All existing commercial chillers, whether using waste heat, steam or natural gas, are water-cooled (i.e., they must be connected to cooling towers which evaporate water into the atmosphere to aid in cooling). This requirement generally limits the market to large commercial-sized units (150 tons or larger), because of the maintenance requirements for the cooling towers. Additionally, such units consume water for cooling, limiting their application in arid regions of the U.S. No suitable small-to-medium size (15 tons to 200 tons) air-cooled absorption chillers are commercially available for these U.S. climates. A small number of prototype air-cooled absorption chillers have been developed in Japan, but they use “hardware” technology that is not suited to the hotter temperatures experienced in most locations in the United States. Although developed to work with natural gas firing, these prototype air-cooled absorption chillers would also be suited to use waste heat as the fuel. 

Recovery of Waste Heat in Cogeneration and Trigeneration Power Plants

In most cogeneration and trigeneration power and energy systems, the exhaust gas from the electric generation equipment is ducted to a heat exchanger to recover the thermal energy in the gas. These heat exchangers are air-to-water heat exchangers, where the exhaust gas flows over some form of tube and fin heat exchange surface and the heat from the exhaust gas is transferred to make hot water or steam. The hot water or steam is then used to provide hot water or steam heating and/or to operate thermally activated equipment, such as an absorption chiller for cooling or a desiccant dehumidifer for dehumidification.

Many of the waste heat recovery technologies used in building co/trigeneration systems require hot water, some at moderate pressures of 15 to 150 psig. In the cases where additional steam or pressurized hot water is needed, it may be necessary to provide supplemental heat to the exhaust gas with a duct burner.

In some applications air-to-air heat exchangers can be used. In other instances, if the emissions from the generation equipment are low enough, such as is with many of the microturbine technologies, the hot exhaust gases can be mixed with make-up air and vented directly into the heating system for building heating.

In the majority of installations, a flapper damper or "diverter" is employed to vary flow across the heat transfer surfaces of the heat exchanger to maintain a specific design temperature of the hot water or steam generation rate. 

Typical Waste Heat Recovery Installation

In some co/trigeneration designs, the exhaust gases can be used to activate a thermal wheel or a desiccant dehumidifier.  Thermal wheels use the exhaust gas to heat a wheel with a medium that absorbs the heat and then transfers the heat when the wheel is rotated into the incoming airflow.

A professional engineer should be involved in designing and sizing of the waste heat recovery section. For a proper and economical operation, the design of the heat recovery section involves consideration of many related factors, such as the thermal capacity of the exhaust gases, the exhaust flow rate, the sizing and type of heat exchanger, and the desired parameters over a various range of operating conditions of the co/trigeneration system — all of which need to be considered for proper and economical operation.

For more information Waste To Fuel/Waste To Energy systems, and Waste Heat Recovery and Waste Heat Boilers, call us at: 832-758-0027

 

* From the Department of Energy website with permission 


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