Biofuel Industries
A Renewable Energy Technologies, LLC. Company
E-mail: info @ cogeneration .net  Tel. (832)  758 - 0027

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Biofuel Industries
www.BiofuelIndustries.com

THE SITE FOR OUR NEXT BIODIESEL PLANT HAS BEEN SELECTED - 

LOCATION: HOUSTON SHIP CHANNEL AREA.

YEAR 1 PRODUCTION OF B100 BIODIESEL:  
34 MILLION GALLONS/YEAR

YEAR 2 PRODUCTION OF B100 BIODIESEL:
100 MILLION GALLONS/YEAR

CONSTRUCTION TIME TO COMPLETE NEW BIODIESEL PLANT (CONVERSION OF EXISTING FACILITY):
8 MONTHS

THIS BIODIESEL PLANT WILL RUN MULTIPLE FEEDSTOCKS.

ALL B100 BIODIESEL WE WILL PRODUCE IS PRE-SOLD.

What are "biofuels"?

Biofuels are "biorenewable energy" resources that replace non-renewable fossil fuels (crude oil, gasoline, propane, natural gas, etc.).  Since the carbon found in biofuels are found in plants and therefore "grown" through photosynthesis of plants, there are no net carbon emissions when biofuels are burned or combusted.  This means that when biofuels replace non-renewable fossil fuels, greenhouse gas emissions, and carbon dioxide emissions are reduced. Biofuels include Biomethane, B100 Biodiesel, and E100 Ethanol. For example, Biomethane is the "natural" gas that is produced from the anaerobic decomposition of organic material in a landfill. While Biomethane normally contain about half the btu content of typical natural gas sold by gas companies, Biomethane is a substitute form and completely replaces natural gas. Likewise, B100 Biodiesel is a substitute and completely replaces petroleum diesel on a gallon for gallon basis as does E100 Ethanol, which replaces gasoline on a gallon for gallon basis.

What are Biofuel Feedstocks?

Biofuel feedstocks are the organic materials used in the production of biofuels such as: Biomethane, B100 Biodiesel and E100 Ethanol

Biomethane (also known as "Renewable Natural Gas") generates the highest net energy balance of all biofuels which means that it's much more efficient and economic to produce Biomethane with ANY of the potential biofuel feedstocks that may have been otherwise used to produce B100 Biodiesel or E100 Ethanol.

The most efficient method of generating Biomethane is through a process called Biomass Gasification.

Examples of biofuel feedstocks include:

For Biomethane: any organic materials - i.e. grass, leaves, corn, sugar beets, sugar cane, crude canola oil, crude coconut oil, crude jatropha oil, crude palm oil, crude rapeseed oil, which are those typical biofuel feedstocks used to produce B100 Biodiesel or E100 Ethanol

Our company develops, builds, owns, operates, acquires and invests in facilities that produce Biomethane, B100 Biodiesel, and E100 Ethanol.  We buy, sell, and broker other biofuels and commodities/feedstocks used in making B100 Biodiesel and E100 Ethanol.  These feedstocks include Crude Palm Oil, Refined Palm Oil, Coconuts, Palm Oil, and we are also looking into the use of Jatropha and other biorenewable energy oils, where we refine it into B100 Biodiesel fuel for use in our cogeneration and trigeneration power plants.  Additionally, we buy/sell/broker energy oils in the international markets. 

Biofuel Industries is a subsidiary of Renewable Energy Technologies now re-locating from Houston to Austin, Texas.  We provide the following power and energy project development services: 

  • Project Engineering Feasibility & Economic Analysis Studies  

  • Engineering, Procurement and Construction

  • Environmental Engineering & Permitting 

  • Project Funding & Financing Options; including Equity Investment, Debt Financing, Lease and Municipal Lease

  • Shared/Guaranteed Savings Program with No Capital Investment from Qualified Clients 

  • Project Commissioning 

  • 3rd Party Ownership and Project Development

  • Long-term Service Agreements

  • Operations & Maintenance 

  • Green Tag (Renewable Energy Credit, Carbon Dioxide Credits, Emission Reduction Credits) Brokerage Services; Application and Permitting

We provide Net Energy Metering project development services as well as "turnkey" products and services in the areas of "Renewable Energy Technologies" and in developing clean power/energy projects that will generate a "Renewable Energy Credit," Carbon Dioxide Credits  and Emission Reduction Credits.  Through our strategic partners, we offer "turnkey" power/energy project development products and services that may include; Absorption Chillers, Adsorption Chillers, Automated Demand Response, Biodiesel Refineries, Biofuel Refineries, Biomass Gasification, BioMethane, Canola Biodiesel, Coconut Biodiesel, Cogeneration, Concentrating Solar Power, Demand Response Programs, Demand Side Management, Energy Conservation Measures, Energy Master Planning, Engine Driven Chillers, Solar CHP, Solar Cogeneration, Rapeseed Biodiesel, Solar Electric Heat Pumps, Solar Electric Power Systems, Solar Heating and Cooling, Solar Trigeneration, Soy Biodiesel, and Trigeneration.

Unlike most companies, we are equipment supplier/vendor neutral. This means we help our clients select the best equipment for their specific application. This approach provides our customers with superior performance, decreased operating expenses and increased return on investment. 

For more information: call us at:  832-758-0027

We plan to be a leading supplier of Biodiesel and turnkey Biodiesel Refineries.  For qualified clients, we provide "turnkey" biodiesel refinery services, including; EPC (Engineering, Procurement, Construction), Investment/Funding, Permitting, Carbon Dioxide Credits and Emission Reduction Credits under the Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism.  For more information, call 832 - 758 - 0027

We buy and sell Biodiesel and have plans to start producing and blending our own, "home-grown, clean, renewable, and American made" B100 Biodiesel, to help end our reliance on unstable, non-renewable, and "dirty" middle-east oil that pollutes our environment and causes inflated energy prices.  

B100 Biodiesel (see www.B100Biodiesel.com) has numerous advantages to petroleum diesel - it's renewable, non-toxic, biodegradable, and produced by American and Canadian farmers. B100 Biodiesel is 100 % biodiesel fuel, and reduces greenhouse gas emissions by 78.3%, particulate matter by 55.4%, hydrocarbons by 56.3%, mutagenicity by 80-90% and sulfur by 100%. 

Our company invests in and builds new Biodiesel Refineries throughout the U.S., Canada, Central America and the Caribbean for our company and our investors. For individual farmers, we can design, engineer and build small-scale biodiesel refineries; i.e. 5,000 acres of canola will produce about 500,000 gallons of Biodiesel.  We are a broker and importer of Crude Palm Oil and other energy oils, where we refine it into Biodiesel fuel for use in our cogeneration and trigeneration power plants.  

Additionally, we buy/sell/broker biofuels, including biodiesel which we can also blend through our partner companies' facilities anywhere from a B2 to B99 Biodiesel blend. We buy/sell/broker ethanol and energy oils in the international markets. 

Grow Your Own "Green" BioDiesel
Increase Profits for Farmers, Improve the Local and Global Economy and Ecology, Decrease Pollution and End the Monopoly of OPEC/Foreign Supplies of "Dirty" Fuels!  

At an average production rate of 130 gallons per acre, Canola or Rapeseed Oil ("BioDiesel") is one of the preferred energy crops in the U.S. and Europe. 

What is Rapeseed Biodiesel?

Rapeseed, some varieties of which are used to make mustard and others to make canola oil, is the preferred biodiesel feedstock in Europe. Depending on the variety, rapeseed oil contains about 40 to 50 percent of its weight in rapeseed is oil, as compared with only 20 percent for soybeans. It can be planted and harvested with the same equipment used for small grains. In addition, rapeseed oil offers certain advantages in the production of biodiesel.

Biodiesel produced from canola and rapeseed oil is superior to soy biodiesel. Especially due to the widely varying price fluctuations of soybeans. And because the feedstock (the oil produced from the fuel crop, such as soybeans, rapeseed or canola) to make biodiesel makes up about 80% of the cost for 
100 % biodiesel, basic economics dictate that the feedstock be obtained from the least-cost source, which is going to be either canola or rapeseed.   

What is Canola Biodiesel?

Canola biodiesel is an environmentally- friendly, renewable energy source that could also produce cost savings for taxpayers and private businesses and is produced from farmers that grow canola. 

Initial research conducted by the University of Saskatchewan and the AAFC Saskatoon Research Centre has found that each ton of renewable biodiesel fuel saves five times its weight in diesel fuel. As well, engines using biodiesel demonstrate wear rates as much as 50% lower than those using regular commercial fuels – effectively doubling engine life.

Canola is a member of the Brassica Family, which includes broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, mustard, radish, and turnip. It is a variant of the crop rapeseed. Grown for its seed, the seed is crushed for the oil contained within. After the oil is extracted, the by-product is a protein-richmeal used by the intensive livestock industry. 

Canola is a very small seed, which means sowing depth must be controlled. The current sowing practice is to cover the seed lightly with soil, which provides more protection from drying out after germination. 

Canola is generally sown in autumn and develops over winter, with flowers emerging in the spring and is harvested early summer. With a growing period of around 180-200 days climatic effects such as sudden heat waves can reduce yields and hot dry conditions can limit its oil content. Summer weather ensures low moisture (less than 6%) at harvest. Carry-in stocks of canola are minimal because of a lack of on-farm storage. Canola is a good rotational crop, acting as a break crop for cereal root diseases. However for disease-related reasons, a rotation period of 3-5 years is required for canola crops. of iodine in grams absorbed per 100 ml of oil is then the IV. The higher the IV, the more unsaturated (the greater the number of double bonds available) is the oil and the higher the potential to ‘gum up’ when used as a fuel in an engine. Though some oils have a low IV and are suitable without any further processing other than extraction and filtering, the majority of vegetable and animal oils have an IV which does not permit their use as a neat fuel. 

Generally speaking, an IV of less than about 25 is required if the neat oil is to be used in unmodified diesel engines and this severely limited the types of oil that can be used.

The IV can be easily reduced by hydrogenation of the oil (reacting the oil with hydrogen), the hydrogen breaking the double bond and converting the fat or oil into a more saturated oil and reducing the tendency of the oil to polymerise. However this process also tends to increase the melting point of the oil and converts the oil into margarine. Only coconut oil has an IV low enough to be used without any special precautions in a unmodified diesel engine. However with a melting point of 25°C, the use of coconut oil in cooler areas would obviously lead to problems. 

Linseed oil could be mixed with petroleum diesel at a ratio of up to 1:8 to give an equivalent IV in the mid-twenties. Likewise coconut oil can be thinned with diesel or kerosene to render it less viscous in cooler climates. Obviously the solubility of the oil in petroleum also needs to be taken into account. Another method is to emulsify the oil or fat with ethanol. Most vegetable oils are a mixture of different esters such as oleic acid (main constituent of olive oil), ricinoleic acid (main constituent of castor oil), linoleic acid (main constituents of linseed oil), palmitic acid (main constituent of palm kernel oil) and so on. In an analogous way to that in which crude oil is refined to make a useable automotive fuel, canola oil needs to be transesterified to make an automotive fuel that is useable in unmodified diesel engines. 

When the oil is processed in a transesterfication process, the various fatty acids react with the alcohol to form a mixture of lighter esters and glycerol. The name of the specific fuel is called after the plant (or animal) source plus the alcohol. Made from rapeseed oil and methanol, the biodiesel is called Rape Methyl Ester (RME), from canola oil and ethanol, Canola Ethyl Ester (CEE), and from used McDonald’s cooking oil and ethanol or methanol, ("McDiesel").


What is "Global Warming Potential?

Global Warming Potential (GWP) is the index used to translate the level of emissions of various gases into a common measure in order to compare the relative radiative forcing of different gases without directly calculating the changes in atmospheric concentrations. 

GWPs are calculated as the ratio of the radiative forcing that would result from the emissions of one kilogram of a greenhouse gas to that from emission of one kilogram of carbon dioxide over a period of time (usually 100 years). Gases involved in complex atmospheric chemical processes have not been assigned GWPs due to complications that arise.

Greenhouse gases are expressed in terms of Carbon Dioxide Equivalent. The International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has presented these GWPs 
and regularly updates them in new assessments. The instantaneous radiative forcing that results from the addition of 1 kilogram of a gas to the atmosphere, relative to that of 1 kilogram of carbon dioxide. 

Over a time horizon of 100 years, methane has a GWP of 24.5, nitrous oxide has a GWP of 320, and CFC-11 has a GWP of 4,000

What Are Greenhouse Gases?

Some greenhouse gases occur naturally in the atmosphere, while others result from human activities. Naturally occurring greenhouse gases include water vapor,
carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone. Certain human activities, however, add to the levels of most of these naturally occurring gases:

Carbon dioxide is released to the atmosphere when solid waste, fossil fuels (oil, natural gas, and coal), and wood and wood products are burned. 

Methane is emitted during the production and transport of coal, natural gas, and oil. Methane emissions also result from the decomposition of organic wastes in municipal solid waste landfills, and the raising of livestock. More information on methane.

Nitrous oxide is emitted during agricultural and industrial activities, as well as during combustion of solid waste and fossil fuels. 


Very powerful greenhouse gases that are not naturally occurring include hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), which are generated in a variety of industrial processes.

Global Warming Potentials and Atmospheric Lifetimes (Years)

Gas

Atmospheric Lifetime

GWPa

Carbon dioxide (CO2)

50-200

1

Methane (CH4)b

12±3

21

Nitrous oxide (N2O)

120

310

HFC-23

264

11,700

HFC-32

5.6

650

HFC-125

32.6

2,800

HFC-134a

14.6

1,300

HFC-143a

48.3

3,800

HFC-152a

1.5

140

HFC-227ea

36.5

2,900

HFC-236fa

209

6,300

HFC-4310mee

17.1

1,300

CF4

50,000

6,500

C2F6

10,000

9,200

C4F10

2,600

7,000

C6F14

3,200

7,400

SF6

3,200

23,900


a 100 year time horizon
b The methane GWP includes the direct effects and those indirect effects due to the production of tropospheric ozone and stratospheric water vapor. The indirect effect due to the production of CO2 is not included.

For more information call:  832  - 758 - 0027

We provide turnkey services that removes Nitrogen Oxides, Nitrous Oxides and Sulfur Oxides. Unlike most companies, we are equipment supplier/vendor neutral. This means we help our clients select the best equipment for their specific application. This approach provides our customers with superior performance, decreased operating expenses and increased return on investment. Selective Catalytic Reduction systems are frequently used in removing NOx.

What are Nitrogen Oxides?

Nitrogen oxides, or NOx, is the generic term for a group of highly reactive gases, all of which contain nitrogen and oxygen in varying amounts. Many of the nitrogen oxides are colorless and odorless. However, one common pollutant, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) along with particles in the air can often be seen as a reddish-brown layer over many urban areas.

Nitrogen oxides form when fuel is burned at high temperatures, as in a combustion process. The primary sources of NOx are motor vehicles, electric utilities, and other industrial, commercial, and residential sources that burn fuels.

Motor Vehicles, 49%; Utilities, 27%; Industrial/Commercial/Residential, 19%; All Other Sources, 5%

Reasons for Concern

Plant ImageNitrogen Oxides

  • are one of the main ingredients involved in the formation of ground-level ozone, which can trigger serious respiratory problems.

  • reacts to form nitrate particles, acid aerosols, as well as NO2, which also cause respiratory problems.

  • contributes to formation of acid rain.

  • contributes to nutrient overload that deteriorates water quality.

  • contributes to atmospheric particles, that cause visibility impairment most noticeable in national parks.

  • reacts to form toxic chemicals.

  • contributes to global warming.

NOx and the pollutants formed from NOx can be transported over long distances, following the pattern of prevailing winds in the U.S. This means that problems associated with NOx are not confined to areas where NOx are emitted. Therefore, controlling NOx is often most effective if done from a regional perspective, rather than focusing on sources in one local area.

NOx emissions are increasing.

Since 1970, EPA has tracked emissions of the six principal air pollutants - carbon monoxide, lead, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds. Emissions of all of these pollutants have decreased significantly except for NOx which has increased approximately 10 percent over this period

How can Nitrogen Oxides be Removed from the Environment?

Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is a proven and effective method to reduce nitrogen oxides which is an air pollutant associated with the power generation process. Nitrogen oxides are a contributor to ground level ozone. 

How does Selective Catalytic Reduction work?

SCR Systems work similar to a catalytic converter used to reduce automobile emissions. Prior to exhaust gases going up the smokestack, they will pass through the SCR System where anhydrous ammonia reacts with nitrogen oxide and converts it to nitrogen and water.

 

* Some of the above information from the Department of Energy website with permission.


 

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