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Certified Emission Reduction
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The Renewable Energy Institute

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What is a Certified Emission Reduction?

A Certified Emission Reduction (CERs) is the technical term for the output of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects, as defined by the Kyoto Protocol. A unit of Greenhouse Gas reductions that has been generated and certified under the provisions of Article 12 of the Kyoto Protocol,  the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). In contrast, Emissions Reduction Credits (ERCs) are used for Joint Implementation (JI) under Article 6 of the Protocol. According to Article 12, Certified Emission Reductions must be "certified by operational entities to be designated by the Conference of the Parties (COP) serving as the Meeting of the Parties (MOP).

We provide Certified Emission Reduction, Emission Reduction Credits, Certified Emission Reductions, Tradable Renewable Certificates, Renewable Energy Certificates, Carbon Dioxide Credits, Energy Efficiency Credits and "Pollution Free Power" energy project development services. From project design and engineering, to financing permitting and installation, we provide turnkey solutions.  This includes Solar Water Heating Systems, Solar Electric Power Systems, Solar CHP, Solar Cogeneration and Solar Trigeneration power and energy systems.  We also offer energy-saving technologies that may include; Absorption Chillers, Adsorption Chillers, Automated Demand Response, Cogeneration, Demand Response Programs, Demand Side Management, Energy Master Planning, Engine Driven Chillers, Trigeneration and Energy Conservation Measures.    

We provide Certified Emission Reduction design, engineering and turnkey project development solutions as well as emission reduction credits, carbon dioxide credits, tradable renewable certificates, and renewable energy credits as a service to our customers when we build new solar power and energy solutions.  

From project design and engineering, to financing permitting and installation, we provide turnkey solutions.  This includes Solar Water Heating Systems, Solar Electric Power Systems, Solar CHP, Solar Cogeneration and Solar Trigeneration power and energy systems.  

We also offer energy-saving technologies that may include; Absorption Chillers, Adsorption Chillers, Automated Demand Response, Cogeneration, Demand Response Programs, Demand Side Management, Energy Master Planning, Engine Driven Chillers, Trigeneration and Energy Conservation Measures.    

Cooler, Cleaner, Greener Power & Energy Solutions  project development services are one of our many specialties. These projects are Kyoto Protocol compliant and generate clean energy and significantly fewer greenhouse gas emissions. Unlike most companies, we are equipment supplier/vendor neutral. This means we help our clients select the best equipment for their specific application. This approach provides our customers with superior performance, decreased operating expenses and increased return on investment. 

Cogeneration Technologies, located in Houston, Texas, provides project development services that generate clean energy and significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions and carbon dioxide emissions. Included in this are our turnkey "ecogeneration" products and services which includes renewable energy technologies, waste to energy, waste to watts and waste heat recovery solutions.  Other project development technologies include; Anaerobic Digester, Anaerobic Lagoon, Biogas Recovery, BioMethane, Biomass Gasification, and Landfill Gas To Energy, project development services. 

Products and services provided by Cogeneration Technologies includes the following power and energy project development services: 

  • Project Engineering Feasibility & Economic Analysis Studies  

  • Engineering, Procurement and Construction

  • Environmental Engineering & Permitting 

  • Project Funding & Financing Options; including Equity Investment, Debt Financing, Lease and Municipal Lease

  • Shared/Guaranteed Savings Program with No Capital Investment from Qualified Clients 

  • Project Commissioning 

  • 3rd Party Ownership and Project Development

  • Long-term Service Agreements

  • Operations & Maintenance 

  • Green Tag (Renewable Energy Credit, Carbon Dioxide Credits, Emission Reduction Credits) Brokerage Services; Application and Permitting

For more information: call us at: 832-758-0027

We are Renewable Energy Technologies specialists and develop clean power and energy projects that will generate a "Renewable Energy Credit," Carbon Dioxide Credits  and Emission Reduction Credits.  Some of our products and services solutions and technologies include; Absorption Chillers, Adsorption Chillers, Automated Demand Response, Biodiesel Refineries, Biofuel Refineries, Biomass Gasification, BioMethane, Canola Biodiesel, Coconut Biodiesel, Cogeneration, Concentrating Solar Power, Demand Response Programs, Demand Side Management, Energy Conservation Measures, Energy Master Planning, Engine Driven Chillers, Geothermal Heatpumps, Groundsource Heatpumps, Solar CHP, Solar Cogeneration, Rapeseed Biodiesel, Solar Electric Heat Pumps, Solar Electric Power Systems, Solar Heating and Cooling, Solar Trigeneration, Soy Biodiesel, Trigeneration, and Watersource Heatpumps.

What is a Certified Emission Reduction?

A Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) is the technical term for the output of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects, as defined by the Kyoto Protocol. A unit of Greenhouse Gas reductions that has been generated and certified under the provisions of Article 12 of the Kyoto Protocol,  the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). In contrast, Emissions Reduction Units (ERUs) are used for Joint Implementation (JI) under Article 6 of the Protocol. According to Article 12, CERs must be "certified by operational entities to be designated by the Conference of the Parties (COP) serving as the Meeting of the Parties (MOP).

What is "Global Warming Potential?

Global Warming Potential (GWP) is the index used to translate the level of emissions of various gases into a common measure in order to compare the relative radiative forcing of different gases without directly calculating the changes in atmospheric concentrations. 

GWPs are calculated as the ratio of the radiative forcing that would result from the emissions of one kilogram of a greenhouse gas to that from emission of one kilogram of carbon dioxide over a period of time (usually 100 years). Gases involved in complex atmospheric chemical processes have not been assigned GWPs due to complications that arise.

Greenhouse gases are expressed in terms of Carbon Dioxide Equivalent. The International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has presented these GWPs 
and regularly updates them in new assessments. The instantaneous radiative forcing that results from the addition of 1 kilogram of a gas to the atmosphere, relative to that of 1 kilogram of carbon dioxide. 

Over a time horizon of 100 years, methane has a GWP of 24.5, nitrous oxide has a GWP of 320, and CFC-11 has a GWP of 4,000

What Are Greenhouse Gases?

Some greenhouse gases occur naturally in the atmosphere, while others result from human activities. Naturally occurring greenhouse gases include water vapor,
carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone. Certain human activities, however, add to the levels of most of these naturally occurring gases:

Carbon dioxide is released to the atmosphere when solid waste, fossil fuels (oil, natural gas, and coal), and wood and wood products are burned. 

Methane is emitted during the production and transport of coal, natural gas, and oil. Methane emissions also result from the decomposition of organic wastes in municipal solid waste landfills, and the raising of livestock. More information on methane.


Nitrous oxide is emitted during agricultural and industrial activities, as well as during combustion of solid waste and fossil fuels. 

Very powerful greenhouse gases that are not naturally occurring include hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), which are generated in a variety of industrial processes.

Global Warming Potentials and Atmospheric Lifetimes (Years)

Gas

Atmospheric Lifetime

GWPa

Carbon dioxide (CO2)

50-200

1

Methane (CH4)b

123

21

Nitrous oxide (N2O)

120

310

HFC-23

264

11,700

HFC-32

5.6

650

HFC-125

32.6

2,800

HFC-134a

14.6

1,300

HFC-143a

48.3

3,800

HFC-152a

1.5

140

HFC-227ea

36.5

2,900

HFC-236fa

209

6,300

HFC-4310mee

17.1

1,300

CF4

50,000

6,500

C2F6

10,000

9,200

C4F10

2,600

7,000

C6F14

3,200

7,400

SF6

3,200

23,900


a 100 year time horizon
b The methane GWP includes the direct effects and those indirect effects due to the production of tropospheric ozone and stratospheric water vapor. The indirect effect due to the production of CO2 is not included.

For more information: call us at:  832-758-0027

What are Nitrogen Oxides?

Nitrogen oxides,
or NOx, is the generic term for a group of highly reactive gases, all of which contain nitrogen and oxygen in varying amounts. Many of the nitrogen oxides are colorless and odorless. However, one common pollutant, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) along with particles in the air can often be seen as a reddish-brown layer over many urban areas.

Nitrogen oxides form when fuel is burned at high temperatures, as in a combustion process. The primary sources of NOx are motor vehicles, electric utilities, and other industrial, commercial, and residential sources that burn fuels.

Motor Vehicles, 49%; Utilities, 27%; Industrial/Commercial/Residential, 19%; All Other Sources, 5%

Reasons for Concern

Plant ImageNOx

  • is one of the main ingredients involved in the formation of ground-level ozone, which can trigger serious respiratory problems.

  • reacts to form nitrate particles, acid aerosols, as well as NO2, which also cause respiratory problems.

  • contributes to formation of acid rain.

  • contributes to nutrient overload that deteriorates water quality.

  • contributes to atmospheric particles, that cause visibility impairment most noticeable in national parks.

  • reacts to form toxic chemicals.

  • contributes to global warming.

NOx and the pollutants formed from NOx can be transported over long distances, following the pattern of prevailing winds in the U.S. This means that problems associated with NOx are not confined to areas where NOx are emitted. Therefore, controlling NOx is often most effective if done from a regional perspective, rather than focusing on sources in one local area.

NOx emissions are increasing.

Since 1970, EPA has tracked emissions of the six principal air pollutants - carbon monoxide, lead, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds. Emissions of all of these pollutants have decreased significantly except for NOx which has increased approximately 10 percent over this period

How can Nitrogen Oxides be Removed from the Environment?

Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is a proven and effective method to reduce nitrogen oxides which is an air pollutant associated with the power generation process. Nitrogen oxides are a contributor to ground level ozone. 

How does Selective Catalytic Reduction work?

SCR Systems work similar to a catalytic converter used to reduce automobile emissions. Prior to exhaust gases going up the smokestack, they will pass through the SCR System where anhydrous ammonia reacts with nitrogen oxide and converts it to nitrogen and water.

For more information, call us at: 832-758-0027

* Some of the above information from the Department of Energy website with permission.

 

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