Biofuel Industries
A Cogeneration Technologies Company
E-mail:   info @ cogeneration .net
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Coconut Biodiesel
www.CoconutBiodiesel.com

 






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The Renewable Energy Institute

email:  info@RenewableEnergyInstitute.org

 

Our New Biodiesel Refineries Will Produce B100 Biodiesel 
for as Little as $.
90/gallon!

B100 Biodiesel: 100% Clean, 100% Renewable, 100% Affordable Fuel

Our company builds new Biodiesel Refineries throughout the U.S. and now, developing countries with specialized feedstocks that include coconut, palm oil and our agricultural team is now reviewing the opportunities of making B100 Biodiesel from Jatropha for what we call "Jatropha Biodiesel."  

In association with a major U.S. university, we incorporate the latest technologies in the production of B100 Biodiesel from oilseed crops, that will provide our biodiesel refineries with the highest efficiencies. We also are an importer of (vegetable) energy oils, where we refine it into Biodiesel fuel for use in our cogeneration and trigeneration power plants. Additionally, we buy/sell/broker (vegetable) energy oils in the international market

We also plan to be the international leader and supplier of Biodiesel Refineries.  For qualified clients, we provide "turnkey" biodiesel refinery services, including; EPC (Engineering, Procurement, Construction), Investment/Funding, Permitting, and Emission Reduction Credits under the Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism.  For more information, call 281-955-7343

Cogeneration Technologies, is based in Houston, Texas and provides the following power and energy project development services: 

  • Project Engineering Feasibility & Economic Analysis Studies  

  • Engineering, Procurement and Construction

  • Environmental Engineering & Permitting 

  • Project Funding & Financing Options; including Equity Investment, Debt Financing, Lease and Municipal Lease

  • Shared/Guaranteed Savings Program with No Capital Investment from Qualified Clients 

  • Project Commissioning 

  • 3rd Party Ownership and Project Development

  • Long-term Service Agreements

  • Operations & Maintenance 

  • Green Tag (Renewable Energy Credit, Carbon Dioxide Credits, Emission Reduction Credits) Brokerage Services; Application and Permitting

We are specialists in Renewable Energy Technologies, Demand Side Management and in developing clean power/energy projects that will generate a Renewable Energy CreditCarbon Dioxide Credits and/or Emission Reduction Credits.  Through our strategic partners, we offer "turnkey" power/energy project development products and services that may include; Absorption Chillers, Adsorption Chillers, Automated Demand Response, Biodiesel Refineries, Biofuel Refineries, Biomass Gasification, BioMethane, Canola Biodiesel, Coconut Biodiesel, Cogeneration, Concentrating Solar Power, Demand Response Programs, Demand Side Management, Energy Conservation Measures, Energy Master Planning, Engine Driven Chillers, Solar CHP, Solar Cogeneration, Rapeseed Biodiesel, Solar Electric Heat Pumps, Solar Electric Power Systems, Solar Heating and Cooling, Solar Trigeneration, Soy Biodiesel, and Trigeneration.

For more information: call us at: 832-758-0027

Investors, Is this the Time to Invest in One of Our Company's New, "State-of-the-Art" B100 Biodiesel Plants and Renewable Energy?    

Investors... many celebrities are now embracing, promoting, making investments in, and jumping on the "B100 Biodiesel fuelled Bandwagon!"

These celebrities are getting involved in the B100 Biodiesel business because it's great for the environment, helps farmers everywhere, and ends our dependence on dirty, polluting, foreign oil supplies.  

Maybe you have heard about Willie "Bio-Willie" Nelson and Morgan Freeman, who are now not just promoting B100 Biodiesel, they're investing in this new industry, and even loaning their names to the B100 Biodiesel industry.

Look at the past 6 years production of B100 Biodiesel in the U.S. :

1999:  500,000 gallons of B100 Biodiesel were produced in the U.S.  
2004:  25 million gallons of B100 Biodiesel produced in the
U.S.

THAT'S A 5,000% INCREASE IN ONLY 5 YEARS!

2005:  75 million gallons of B100 Biodiesel produced in the U.S.   

Investors... 

1. Are you concerned about the quality of our environment? 

2. Do you want to "do-good" with your investments?

3. Are you looking for a ground-floor market opportunity with huge up-scale and growth opportunities?

4. Are you convinced, as we are, that Biodiesel is the "renewable fuel and energy of the future?!?"

5. Then, you might be interested, and qualified, to make an investment in one of our new Biodiesel plants.

We are planning new Biodiesel plants throughout the United States , the Caribbean , Central America and Southeast Asia . We develop, build, and own B100 Biodiesel plants that use a variety of feedstocks, including;

*  Canola Biodiesel from coconuts - Investments for new Biodiesel
plants now planned for locations in the U.S. (Hawaii), Caribbean, Asia,
Central America and Southeast Asia (See our website at: 
www.CanolaBiodiesel.com
for more information)

*  Coconut Biodiesel from coconuts - Investments for new Biodiesel
plants now planned for locations in the U.S. (Hawaii), Caribbean, Asia,
Central America and Southeast Asia (See our website at: 
www.CoconutBiodiesel.com
for more information)

*  Jatropha Biodiesel from the Jatropha Curcas plant Investments for new Biodiesel plants now planned for locations in Asia, India, and Southeast Asia  (See our website at:  www.JatrophaBiodiesel.com for more information)

*  Jojoba Biodiesel from the Jatropha Curcas plant - Investments for new Biodiesel plants now planned for locations in Asia, India, and Southeast Asia  (See our website at: www.JojobaBiodiesel.com for more information)

*  Palm Oil Biodiesel from Palm Trees - Investments for new Biodiesel plants now planned for locations in the U.S., Caribbean, Asia, Central America and Southeast Asia  (See our website at:
www.PalmOilBiodiesel.com
for more information)

*  Rapeseed Biodiesel from coconuts - Investments for new Biodiesel plants now planned for locations in the U.S. (Hawaii), Caribbean, Asia, Central America and Southeast Asia (See our website at: 
www.RapeseedBiodiesel.com
for more information)

*  Soy Biodiesel from Soybean Oil - Investments for new Biodiesel 
plants now planned for locations in the U.S., Asia, Central America and Southeast Asia (See our website at:  www.SoyBiodiesel.net for more information)

Grow Your Own "Green" BioDiesel
Increase Profits for Farmers, Improve the Local and Global Economy and Ecology, 
Decrease Pollution and End the Monopoly of OPEC/Foreign Supplies of "Dirty" Fuels!
  

Coconut Biodiesel

Introduction

Coconuts have been widely harvested in tropical coastal areas. The principal product of coconuts is copra, the dried flesh of the nut, from which coconut oil is extracted for use in food products such as margarine as well as in cosmetics and soap. In recent years the demand for copra has been falling, leading to declining incomes in areas that are heavily dependent on coconut and copra production. 

 


The coconut's copra or flesh can be dried and pressed to produce oil.
Source: ITDG/Zul

 

South Pacific Island Economies

Most South Pacific Islands are relatively poor, with average per capita incomes of less than $2,000 per year. As many as 80 per cent of these island citizens live in rural areas. There are hundreds of islands in the South Pacific ocean that include many popular destinations such as Tahiti and Fiji. Nearly all South Pacific islands are net importers of goods. 

 


Copra is often produced by sun-drying the coconut flesh, though a higher-value product can be obtained by using a hot air drier
Source: ITDG/Neil Cooper

Diesel fuel accounts for about US$9 million, or about 10 per cent of the total value of imports. If a sizeable proportion of imported diesel could be substituted by an indigenously produced fuel, it would make a significant difference to the balance of payments deficit.

Copra is the main export commodity of many South Pacific islands whose economies are heavily dependent on the price of coconuts and copra.  Lack of opportunity and underemployment are serious problems in the country, and realizing the full potential of coconut-based products could offer many opportunities for developing rural-based livelihoods and providing increased and more secure incomes.

 

 

 

The Coconut - A Truly Versatile Commodity

Coconut is a very useful resource, not only for producing oil. The coconut fibre from the nut, known as coir, can be processed into mats, rope, fabrics, brushes and a biodegradable packaging material as an alternative to expanded polystyrene, as well as an environmentally friendly alternative to peat for potting and bedding plants. The coconut shell is good for making charcoal for fuel, and activated charcoal for purifying water and other liquids and gases.

The residue from the pressing of the oil makes a good animal feed. "Straight" coconut oil can be used for cooking, as well as a fuel for lamps.

There is a growing interest in the health benefits of virgin coconut oil that has not been hydrogenated, a process which extends the shelf-life of oil products but has associated health risks.

Commercial Coconut Oil Production

Vegetable oil from soya and rapeseed (canola) has similar uses to coconut oil. In many countries the growing of soya has expanded and harvests of the crop have generally been good, so the market and price for copra have declined. On some estates on the islands of Efate and the Tafea group the coconut crop is no longer harvested, as this is not economic. Even where copra is produced, demand is mainly for high quality grades. It is very difficult to sell the poorer quality copra and make a profit. This mostly comes from smaller producers who use sun or smoke to dry the coconut. Drying coconut flesh slowly in the open air also risks bacterial infection.

Vanuatu exports coconut oil as well as raw copra. A single large mill, C.O.P.V. Santo, produces this. Producing Coconut Biodiesel for use as a biofuel on the island is possible but only after a biodiesel plant is constructed. This would help to improve rural incomes and economies and could mitigate the migration from rural areas to towns where there are few employment opportunities.

Environmental advantages for using biofuels such as Coconut Biodiesel compared with petroleum diesel include:

  • Raw material resources are renewable and not finite;

  • Trees grown for producing the fuel also re-absorb some of carbon dioxide released in burning the fuel;

  • The fuel is cleaner-burning, releasing fewer particulates and noxious gases than diesel.

Coconut Biodiesel as Vehicle Fuel

The use of oil obtained from the nuts of the coconut palm (Cocos nucifera) for use as a B100 Biodiesel fuel has been supported the past several years by our company. The use of coconut oil and other vegetable oils in the production of B100 Biodiesel, or "Coconut Biodiesel," is not new.  Even straight vegetable oils such as coconut oil have been used used in the Philippines during the Second World War when diesel was in short supply. Since then the wide availability of diesel throughout the world and difficulties in running engines on coconut oil in cooler weather had virtually ended its use in this way. In recent years there has been a revival of interest in a number of countries, e.g. Thailand, India, the Philippines and some Pacific island states. This was due to the growing demand for diesel because numbers of vehicles and equipment were increasing, leading to higher prices and in some countries shortages. There were also concerns about growing import deficits and environmental pollution caused by increasing diesel use.

Technical difficulties

The main drawback with using coconut fuel oil in engines is that it starts to solidify at a temperature below 22°C, and by 14°C it is close to solid and does not flow at all. In tropical countries temperatures fall below 22°C on a significant number of nights throughout the year, and sometimes during the day in the cooler season. If the engine is started while the temperature is below 22 C, the fuel filter is likely to become blocked.

Transesterification

Transesterification is the process that converts vegetable oils into B100 Biodiesel.  Transesterification, the main product of which is a methyl or ethyl ester, has a low solidifying temperature. This process involves dehydration of the oil followed by reaction with sodium hydroxide (caustic soda) and methanol or ethanol. 

Coconut Oil Extraction

It has been suggested that better grades of copra should be used for producing coconut oil for B100 Biodiesel, however, this is untrue as the transesterification process resolves any issues that might have caused problems if using coconut oils as a fuel directly. 

Biofuel Industries possesses proprietary technologies relating to coconut oil extraction, which further reduces the costs related to Coconut Biodiesel production. Normally, high-pressure screw presses are needed to extract the oil from copra, and these need to be powered with electricity or hydraulics. Others have found that coconut oil can be extracted from copra at a significantly lower pressure than normal when it has been dried to a particular moisture content, and simpler manually operated presses can be used. It can be quite difficult to dry the copra to the right level, so it is better dry it out as far as possible in the sun or a hot air drier, then add the necessary amount of water. The water would be mixed in with the oil product and would need to be removed before it could be used for fuel.

This process is being disseminated under the designation of Direct Micro Expelling (DME) and small mills have been set up by local people on various island states, including Kiribati, Fiji, Tonga, Samoa and Tuvalu. Because the process can be carried out on a small scale this makes it accessible to coconut growers who can produce oil as a value-added product and are therefore less dependent on agents for the big oil producers who usually offer low prices for copra.

Coconut Biodiesel and the Future

Coconut Biodiesel for many regions is the future of energy and power production. Our related company, Cogeneration Technologies builds cogeneration power plants that are fueled with Coconut Biodiesel as the primary fuel to make power and energy.  Coconut Biodiesel has numerous economic and environmental benefits and helps developing countries become energy independent, and simultaneously eliminates the need for petroleum products that pollute the environment and damage the economies of developing countries. 

 

What is Coconut Biodiesel?


Coconut Biodiesel has all of the typical attributes of B100 Biodiesel except Coconut Biodiesel is one of the best performing biodiesel fuels in terms of engine or turbine performance and overall emissions.  Coconut Biodiesel is a renewable and biodegradable diesel fuel extracted from coconut plant oil. A natural hydrocarbon with negligible sulfur content, it will substantially help in reducing emissions from diesel-fed engines. It is now commonly used in the United States, Canada, Thailand, and many countries in Europe.

What is Coconut Methyl Ester?

Coconut Methyl Ester or CME is derived from coconut oil and is more appropriately known as Coconut Biodiesel. Compared with other forms of biodiesel, the medium carbon chain of Coconut Biodiesel fuel provides excellent lubricity, solvency and detergency. Studies show that the addition of Coconut Biodiesel results in better combustion, less pollution, and more engine power; the engines run smoothly – with longer maintenance intervals!

Because of these outstanding characteristics, Coconut Biodiesel is considered first-rate and highly adaptable.

 

 

 

 

Why use Coconut Biodiesel

 

 


Environmental & Health Benefits

 


Coconut Biodiesel

  • is renewable and biodegradable, being plant-based.

  • Lowers emission of nitrous oxide and sulfur oxide – the main contributors to smog.

  • Significantly reduces serious air pollutants such as black smoke and air toxics that cause lung cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis, pneumonia, bronchitis, heart attack and stroke.

  • Means less emission and cleaner air.

 

 

 

Economic benefits to vehicle owners and drivers

 


Coconut Biodiesel

  • cuts maintenance costs because its superior lubricating and cleaning properties.

  • Promotes better, more efficient combustions and less engine vibration because if its higher cetane number and inherent oxygen content.

  • Boosts engine power and acceleration.

  • Improves fuel economy by as much as 20%, which means you get more mileage and big savings per liter.

 

 

 

Economic benefits to the Coconut Industry.

 


Coconut Biodiesel

  • will provide and establish a long-term, sustainable alternative domestic market and, as a result, will stabilize the domestic price of copra.

  • Will enhance farm-based reintegration of coconut production, resulting in more income opportunities.

 

 

 

Economic Benefits for the Countries we Build New Coconut Biodiesel Plants In:

 


Coconut Biodiesel

  • Will spearhead the introduction of the Coconut Biodiesel industry in the - an industry that would create more jobs.

  • Will promote participation of the respective country in the potentially huge biofuel industry.

  • Will enhance energy supply security through the use of indigenous resources, at the same time resulting in foreign exchange savings.

  • Will benefit millions of coconut farmers and others dependent on the coconut industry,

 

 

 

 

 

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS (FAQs)


What is CME?
CME is the acronym for Coconut Methyl Ester or Coco-Biodiesel. Biodiesel, on the other hand, is the international name for methyl ester when used s diesel fuel enhancer. (CME is not the same as the coco-diesel used in the 70’s. Coco-diesel pertains to the use of crude coconut oil did not undergo esterification.)

Is Coco-Biodiesel safe to use on my engine?
YES! Coco-Biodiesel can be used in any diesel engine with little or no modification to the engine or fuel system. Also, blending Coco-Biodiesel actually improves the Quality o the diesel fuel because pf its properties, like:

  1. high lubricity, which protects your engine from wear.

  2. Detergency, which cleans your engine fuel system.

  3. solvency, which dissolves and clean your air combustions crom carbon deposits.

How do I mix Coconut Biodiesel?

Simply add a 1% equivalent of Coco-Biodiesel to the fuel you are loading into your tank. For example, if you are loading 50 liters of diesel fuel, add 500ml of Coco-Biodiesel. If you are refilling only 10 liters, add only 100ml of Coco-Biodiesel.

Why only 1% Coconut Biodiesel?

While the World Fuel Charter published by all automotive manufacturers worldwide allows blends of up to 5%, studies show that a 1% mix of Coconut Biodiesel is enough to significantly reduce emissions.

Won’t the use of Coconut Biodiesel increase my spending on fuel?

Initially, it would appear that way. But think about this. Since you will gain more mileage per liter with the use of Coco-Biodiesel doubles the value of your fuel investment.

Where Can I Buy Coconut Biodiesel?

You can buy Coconut Biodiesel directly from us. There are minimum amounts required, and we prefer a 12 month contract for all new customers. 

Is Coconut Biodiesel the solution to all fuel-related engine and emission problems of my vehicle?

Coconut Biodiesel is just one of the solutions to pollution and emission problems we provide worldwide. To ensure optimum engine performance, a vehicle owner or diver should still carry out regular maintenance and practice good driving habits.

Is Coconut Biodiesel here to stay?

Coconut Biodiesel is a priority, renewable fuel with many countries, farmers and consumers interested in "green fuel."  

Coconut Biodiesel is being implemented by numerous countries and agencies of governments in collaboration with numerous government agencies.

In addition, the critical step of instituting Coconut Biodiesel was taken by the President of the Republic of the Philippines by issuing memorandum Circular No. 55 on February 9, 2004 “directing all departments, bureaus, offices, agencies and instrumentalities of the government, including government-owned and controlled corporations to incorporate the use of one percent (1%) by volume Coconut Methyl Ester in their diesel requirements.”

With all the benefit of Coconut Biodiesel and with all the support that it is getting, we can be assured that it will be a sustainable and strategic approach in cleaning the air and energizing the economy.

What is Biodiesel?

Biodiesel is an environmentally- friendly, renewable energy source that could also produce cost savings for taxpayers and private businesses and is produced from farmers that grow various fuel crops.  

Biodiesel produced from canola and rapeseed oil is superior to soy biodiesel. Especially due to the widely varying price fluctuations of soybeans. And because the feedstock (the oil produced from the fuel crop, such as soybeans, rapeseed or canola) to make biodiesel makes up about 80% of the cost for 
100 % biodiesel, basic economics dictate that the feedstock be obtained from the least-cost source, which is going to be either canola or rapeseed.  

Initial research conducted by the University of Saskatchewan and the AAFC Saskatoon Research Centre has found that each ton of renewable biodiesel fuel saves five times its weight in diesel fuel. As well, engines using biodiesel demonstrate wear rates as much as 50% lower than those using regular commercial fuels – effectively doubling engine life.

Canola is a member of the Brassica Family, which includes broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, mustard, radish, and turnip. It is a variant of the crop rapeseed. Grown for its seed, the seed is crushed for the oil contained within. After the oil is extracted, the by-product is a protein-richmeal used by the intensive livestock industry. 

Canola is a very small seed, which means sowing depth must be controlled. The current sowing practice is to cover the seed lightly with soil, which provides more protection from drying out after germination. 

Canola is generally sown in autumn and develops over winter, with flowers emerging in the spring and is harvested early summer. With a growing period of around 180-200 days climatic effects such as sudden heat waves can reduce yields and hot dry conditions can limit its oil content. Summer weather ensures low moisture (less than 6%) at harvest. Carry-in stocks of canola are minimal because of a lack of on-farm storage. Canola is a good rotational crop, acting as a break crop for cereal root diseases. However for disease-related reasons, a rotation period of 3-5 years is required for canola crops. of iodine in grams absorbed per 100 ml of oil is then the IV. The higher the IV, the more unsaturated (the greater the number of double bonds available) is the oil and the higher the potential to ‘gum up’ when used as a fuel in an engine. Though some oils have a low IV and are suitable without any further processing other than extraction and filtering, the majority of vegetable and animal oils have an IV which does not permit their use as a neat fuel. 

Generally speaking, an IV of less than about 25 is required if the neat oil is to be used in unmodified diesel engines and this severely limited the types of oil that can be used.

The IV can be easily reduced by hydrogenation of the oil (reacting the oil with hydrogen), the hydrogen breaking the double bond and converting the fat or oil into a more saturated oil and reducing the tendency of the oil to polymerise. However this process also tends to increase the melting point of the oil and converts the oil into margarine. Only coconut oil has an IV low enough to be used without any special precautions in a unmodified diesel engine. However with a melting point of 25°C, the use of coconut oil in cooler areas would obviously lead to problems. 

Linseed oil could be mixed with petroleum diesel at a ratio of up to 1:8 to give an equivalent IV in the mid-twenties. Likewise coconut oil can be thinned with diesel or kerosene to render it less viscous in cooler climates. Obviously the solubility of the oil in petroleum also needs to be taken into account. Another method is to emulsify the oil or fat with ethanol. Most vegetable oils are a mixture of different esters such as oleic acid (main constituent of olive oil), ricinoleic acid (main constituent of castor oil), linoleic acid (main constituents of linseed oil), palmitic acid (main constituent of palm kernel oil) and so on. In an analogous way to that in which crude oil is refined to make a useable automotive fuel, canola oil needs to be transesterified to make an automotive fuel that is useable in unmodified diesel engines. 

When the oil is processed in a transesterfication process, the various fatty acids react with the alcohol to form a mixture of lighter esters and glycerol. The name of the specific fuel is called after the plant (or animal) source plus the alcohol. Made from rapeseed oil and methanol, the biodiesel is called Rape Methyl Ester (RME), from canola oil and ethanol, Canola Ethyl Ester (CEE), and from used McDonald’s cooking oil and ethanol or methanol, ("McDiesel").


What is Rapeseed Biodiesel?

Rapeseed, some varieties of which are used to make mustard and others to make canola oil, is the preferred biodiesel feedstock in Europe. Depending on the variety, rapeseed oil contains about 40 to 50 percent of its weight in rapeseed is oil, as compared with only 20 percent for soybeans. It can be planted and harvested with the same equipment used for small grains. In addition, rapeseed oil offers certain advantages in the production of biodiesel.


What is "Global Warming Potential?

Global Warming Potential (GWP) is the index used to translate the level of emissions of various gases into a common measure in order to compare the relative radiative forcing of different gases without directly calculating the changes in atmospheric concentrations. 

GWPs are calculated as the ratio of the radiative forcing that would result from the emissions of one kilogram of a greenhouse gas to that from emission of one kilogram of carbon dioxide over a period of time (usually 100 years). Gases involved in complex atmospheric chemical processes have not been assigned GWPs due to complications that arise.

Greenhouse gases are expressed in terms of Carbon Dioxide Equivalent. The International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has presented these GWPs 
and regularly updates them in new assessments. The instantaneous radiative forcing that results from the addition of 1 kilogram of a gas to the atmosphere, relative to that of 1 kilogram of carbon dioxide. 


Over a time horizon of 100 years, methane has a GWP of 24.5, nitrous oxide has a GWP of 320, and CFC-11 has a GWP of 4,000

What Are Greenhouse Gases?

Some greenhouse gases occur naturally in the atmosphere, while others result from human activities. Naturally occurring greenhouse gases include water vapor,
carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone. Certain human activities, however, add to the levels of most of these naturally occurring gases:

Carbon dioxide is released to the atmosphere when solid waste, fossil fuels (oil, natural gas, and coal), and wood and wood products are burned. 

Methane is emitted during the production and transport of coal, natural gas, and oil. Methane emissions also result from the decomposition of organic wastes in municipal solid waste landfills, and the raising of livestock. More information on methane.

Nitrous oxide is emitted during agricultural and industrial activities, as well as during combustion of solid waste and fossil fuels. 

Very powerful greenhouse gases that are not naturally occurring include hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), which are generated in a variety of industrial processes.

Global Warming Potentials and Atmospheric Lifetimes (Years)

Gas

Atmospheric Lifetime

GWPa

Carbon dioxide (CO2)

50-200

1

Methane (CH4)b

12±3

21

Nitrous oxide (N2O)

120

310

HFC-23

264

11,700

HFC-32

5.6

650

HFC-125

32.6

2,800

HFC-134a

14.6

1,300

HFC-143a

48.3

3,800

HFC-152a

1.5

140

HFC-227ea

36.5

2,900

HFC-236fa

209

6,300

HFC-4310mee

17.1

1,300

CF4

50,000

6,500

C2F6

10,000

9,200

C4F10

2,600

7,000

C6F14

3,200

7,400

SF6

3,200

23,900


a 100 year time horizon
b The methane GWP includes the direct effects and those indirect effects due to the production of tropospheric ozone and stratospheric water vapor. The indirect effect due to the production of CO2 is not included.

For more information call:  832  - 758 - 0027

We provide turnkey services that removes Nitrogen Oxides, Nitrous Oxides and Sulfur Oxides. Unlike most companies, we are equipment supplier/vendor neutral. This means we help our clients select the best equipment for their specific application. This approach provides our customers with superior performance, decreased operating expenses and increased return on investment. Selective Catalytic Reduction systems are frequently used in removing NOx.

What are Nitrogen Oxides?

Nitrogen oxides, or NOx, is the generic term for a group of highly reactive gases, all of which contain nitrogen and oxygen in varying amounts. Many of the nitrogen oxides are colorless and odorless. However, one common pollutant, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) along with particles in the air can often be seen as a reddish-brown layer over many urban areas.

Nitrogen oxides form when fuel is burned at high temperatures, as in a combustion process. The primary sources of NOx are motor vehicles, electric utilities, and other industrial, commercial, and residential sources that burn fuels.

Motor Vehicles, 49%; Utilities, 27%; Industrial/Commercial/Residential, 19%; All Other Sources, 5%

Reasons for Concern

Plant ImageNitrogen Oxides

  • are one of the main ingredients involved in the formation of ground-level ozone, which can trigger serious respiratory problems.

  • reacts to form nitrate particles, acid aerosols, as well as NO2, which also cause respiratory problems.

  • contributes to formation of acid rain.

  • contributes to nutrient overload that deteriorates water quality.

  • contributes to atmospheric particles, that cause visibility impairment most noticeable in national parks.

  • reacts to form toxic chemicals.

  • contributes to global warming.

NOx and the pollutants formed from NOx can be transported over long distances, following the pattern of prevailing winds in the U.S. This means that problems associated with NOx are not confined to areas where NOx are emitted. Therefore, controlling NOx is often most effective if done from a regional perspective, rather than focusing on sources in one local area.

NOx emissions are increasing.

Since 1970, EPA has tracked emissions of the six principal air pollutants - carbon monoxide, lead, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds. Emissions of all of these pollutants have decreased significantly except for NOx which has increased approximately 10 percent over this period

How can Nitrogen Oxides be Removed from the Environment?

Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is a proven and effective method to reduce nitrogen oxides which is an air pollutant associated with the power generation process. Nitrogen oxides are a contributor to ground level ozone. 

How does Selective Catalytic Reduction work?

SCR Systems work similar to a catalytic converter used to reduce automobile emissions. Prior to exhaust gases going up the smokestack, they will pass through the SCR System where anhydrous ammonia reacts with nitrogen oxide and converts it to nitrogen and water.

* Some of the above information from the Department of Energy website with permission.

At an average production rate of 260 - 300 gallons per acre, Coconut Oil ("BioDiesel") is one of the most efficient energy crops, and second only to Crude Palm Oil that is produced from palm trees, and at an average yield of 600-700 gallons per acre.

What is Biodiesel?

Biodiesel is an environmentally- friendly, renewable energy source that could also produce cost savings for taxpayers and private businesses and is produced from farmers that grow various fuel crops.  


Biodiesel produced from canola and rapeseed oil is superior to soy biodiesel. Especially due to the widely varying price fluctuations of soybeans. And because the feedstock (the oil produced from the fuel crop, such as soybeans, rapeseed or canola) to make biodiesel makes up about 80% of the cost for 
100 % biodiesel, basic economics dictate that the feedstock be obtained from the least-cost source, which is going to be either canola or rapeseed.  

Initial research conducted by the University of Saskatchewan and the AAFC Saskatoon Research Centre has found that each ton of renewable biodiesel fuel saves five times its weight in diesel fuel. As well, engines using biodiesel demonstrate wear rates as much as 50% lower than those using regular commercial fuels – effectively doubling engine life.

Canola is a member of the Brassica Family, which includes broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, mustard, radish, and turnip. It is a variant of the crop rapeseed. Grown for its seed, the seed is crushed for the oil contained within. After the oil is extracted, the by-product is a protein-richmeal used by the intensive livestock industry. 

Canola is a very small seed, which means sowing depth must be controlled. The current sowing practice is to cover the seed lightly with soil, which provides more protection from drying out after germination. 

Canola is generally sown in autumn and develops over winter, with flowers emerging in the spring and is harvested early summer. With a growing period of around 180-200 days climatic effects such as sudden heat waves can reduce yields and hot dry conditions can limit its oil content. Summer weather ensures low moisture (less than 6%) at harvest. Carry-in stocks of canola are minimal because of a lack of on-farm storage. Canola is a good rotational crop, acting as a break crop for cereal root diseases. However for disease-related reasons, a rotation period of 3-5 years is required for canola crops. of iodine in grams absorbed per 100 ml of oil is then the IV. The higher the IV, the more unsaturated (the greater the number of double bonds available) is the oil and the higher the potential to ‘gum up’ when used as a fuel in an engine. Though some oils have a low IV and are suitable without any further processing other than extraction and filtering, the majority of vegetable and animal oils have an IV which does not permit their use as a neat fuel. 

Generally speaking, an IV of less than about 25 is required if the neat oil is to be used in unmodified diesel engines and this severely limited the types of oil that can be used.

The IV can be easily reduced by hydrogenation of the oil (reacting the oil with hydrogen), the hydrogen breaking the double bond and converting the fat or oil into a more saturated oil and reducing the tendency of the oil to polymerise. However this process also tends to increase the melting point of the oil and converts the oil into margarine. Only coconut oil has an IV low enough to be used without any special precautions in a unmodified diesel engine. However with a melting point of 25°C, the use of coconut oil in cooler areas would obviously lead to problems. 

Linseed oil could be mixed with petroleum diesel at a ratio of up to 1:8 to give an equivalent IV in the mid-twenties. Likewise coconut oil can be thinned with diesel or kerosene to render it less viscous in cooler climates. Obviously the solubility of the oil in petroleum also needs to be taken into account. Another method is to emulsify the oil or fat with ethanol. Most vegetable oils are a mixture of different esters such as oleic acid (main constituent of olive oil), ricinoleic acid (main constituent of castor oil), linoleic acid (main constituents of linseed oil), palmitic acid (main constituent of palm kernel oil) and so on. In an analogous way to that in which crude oil is refined to make a useable automotive fuel, canola oil needs to be transesterified to make an automotive fuel that is useable in unmodified diesel engines. 

When the oil is processed in a transesterfication process, the various fatty acids react with the alcohol to form a mixture of lighter esters and glycerol. The name of the specific fuel is called after the plant (or animal) source plus the alcohol. Made from rapeseed oil and methanol, the biodiesel is called Rape Methyl Ester (RME), from canola oil and ethanol, Canola Ethyl Ester (CEE), and from used McDonald’s cooking oil and ethanol or methanol, ("McDiesel").

What is Rapeseed Biodiesel?

Rapeseed, some varieties of which are used to make mustard and others to make canola oil, is the preferred biodiesel feedstock in Europe. Depending on the variety, rapeseed oil contains about 40 to 50 percent of its weight in rapeseed is oil, as compared with only 20 percent for soybeans. It can be planted and harvested with the same equipment used for small grains. In addition, rapeseed oil offers certain advantages in the production of biodiesel.

What is "Global Warming Potential?

Global Warming Potential (GWP) is the index used to translate the level of emissions of various gases into a common measure in order to compare the relative radiative forcing of different gases without directly calculating the changes in atmospheric concentrations. 

GWPs are calculated as the ratio of the radiative forcing that would result from the emissions of one kilogram of a greenhouse gas to that from emission of one kilogram of carbon dioxide over a period of time (usually 100 years). Gases involved in complex atmospheric chemical processes have not been assigned GWPs due to complications that arise.

Greenhouse gases are expressed in terms of Carbon Dioxide Equivalent. The International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has presented these GWPs 
and regularly updates them in new assessments. The instantaneous radiative forcing that results from the addition of 1 kilogram of a gas to the atmosphere, relative to that of 1 kilogram of carbon dioxide. 

Over a time horizon of 100 years, methane has a GWP of 24.5, nitrous oxide has a GWP of 320, and CFC-11 has a GWP of 4,000

What Are Greenhouse Gases?

Some greenhouse gases occur naturally in the atmosphere, while others result from human activities. Naturally occurring greenhouse gases include water vapor,
carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone. Certain human activities, however, add to the levels of most of these naturally occurring gases:

Carbon dioxide is released to the atmosphere when solid waste, fossil fuels (oil, natural gas, and coal), and wood and wood products are burned. 

Methane is emitted during the production and transport of coal, natural gas, and oil. Methane emissions also result from the decomposition of organic wastes in municipal solid waste landfills, and the raising of livestock. More information on methane.

Nitrous oxide is emitted during agricultural and industrial activities, as well as during combustion of solid waste and fossil fuels. 

Very powerful greenhouse gases that are not naturally occurring include hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), which are generated in a variety of industrial processes.

Global Warming Potentials and Atmospheric Lifetimes (Years)

Gas

Atmospheric Lifetime

GWPa

Carbon dioxide (CO2)

50-200

1

Methane (CH4)b

12±3

21

Nitrous oxide (N2O)

120

310

HFC-23

264

11,700

HFC-32

5.6

650

HFC-125

32.6

2,800

HFC-134a

14.6

1,300

HFC-143a

48.3

3,800

HFC-152a

1.5

140

HFC-227ea

36.5

2,900

HFC-236fa

209

6,300

HFC-4310mee

17.1

1,300

CF4

50,000

6,500

C2F6

10,000

9,200

C4F10

2,600

7,000

C6F14

3,200

7,400

SF6

3,200

23,900


a 100 year time horizon
b The methane GWP includes the direct effects and those indirect effects due to the production of tropospheric ozone and stratospheric water vapor. The indirect effect due to the production of CO2 is not included.

For more information call:  832  - 758 - 0027

We provide turnkey services that removes Nitrogen Oxides, Nitrous Oxides and Sulfur Oxides. Unlike most companies, we are equipment supplier/vendor neutral. This means we help our clients select the best equipment for their specific application. This approach provides our customers with superior performance, decreased operating expenses and increased return on investment. Selective Catalytic Reduction systems are frequently used in removing NOx.

What are Nitrogen Oxides?

Nitrogen oxides, or NOx, is the generic term for a group of highly reactive gases, all of which contain nitrogen and oxygen in varying amounts. Many of the nitrogen oxides are colorless and odorless. However, one common pollutant, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) along with particles in the air can often be seen as a reddish-brown layer over many urban areas.

Nitrogen oxides form when fuel is burned at high temperatures, as in a combustion process. The primary sources of NOx are motor vehicles, electric utilities, and other industrial, commercial, and residential sources that burn fuels.

Motor Vehicles, 49%; Utilities, 27%; Industrial/Commercial/Residential, 19%; All Other Sources, 5%

Reasons for Concern

Plant ImageNitrogen Oxides

  • are one of the main ingredients involved in the formation of ground-level ozone, which can trigger serious respiratory problems.

  • reacts to form nitrate particles, acid aerosols, as well as NO2, which also cause respiratory problems.

  • contributes to formation of acid rain.

  • contributes to nutrient overload that deteriorates water quality.

  • contributes to atmospheric particles, that cause visibility impairment most noticeable in national parks.

  • reacts to form toxic chemicals.

  • contributes to global warming.

NOx and the pollutants formed from NOx can be transported over long distances, following the pattern of prevailing winds in the U.S. This means that problems associated with NOx are not confined to areas where NOx are emitted. Therefore, controlling NOx is often most effective if done from a regional perspective, rather than focusing on sources in one local area.

NOx emissions are increasing.

Since 1970, EPA has tracked emissions of the six principal air pollutants - carbon monoxide, lead, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds. Emissions of all of these pollutants have decreased significantly except for NOx which has increased approximately 10 percent over this period

How can Nitrogen Oxides be Removed from the Environment?

Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is a proven and effective method to reduce nitrogen oxides which is an air pollutant associated with the power generation process. Nitrogen oxides are a contributor to ground level ozone. 

How does Selective Catalytic Reduction work?

SCR Systems work similar to a catalytic converter used to reduce automobile emissions. Prior to exhaust gases going up the smokestack, they will pass through the SCR System where anhydrous ammonia reacts with nitrogen oxide and converts it to nitrogen and water.

* Some of the above information from the Department of Energy website with permission.


 

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