Emission Reduction Credit
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The Renewable Energy Institute
What is an
Emission Reduction Credit?
Emission Reduction Credit (ERC) is a credit granted upon request by an emission source who voluntarily reduces emissions beyond required levels of control. An
Emission Reduction Credit represents the legal ability to emit regulated pollutants in an amount equal to the quantity specified when the
Emission Reduction Credit was granted.
Emission Reduction Credits may be sold, leased, banked for future use, or traded in accordance with applicable regulations established by
SWCAA. Emission Reduction Credits
are intended to provide an incentive for reducing emissions below required levels, and to establish a framework to promote a market based approach to air pollution control.
is a Certified Emission
A Certified Emission Reduction (CERs) is the
technical term for the output of Clean
Development Mechanism (CDM) projects, as defined by the Kyoto
Protocol. A unit of Greenhouse Gas reductions that has been generated
and certified under the provisions of Article 12 of the Kyoto
Protocol, the Clean
Development Mechanism (CDM). In contrast, Emissions
Reduction Credits (ERCs) are used for Joint Implementation (JI) under
Article 6 of the Protocol. According to Article 12, Certified
Emission Reductions must be "certified by operational entities to
be designated by the Conference of the Parties (COP) serving as the
Meeting of the Parties (MOP)”.
Emission Reduction, Emission Reduction Credits,
Reductions, Tradable Renewable
Energy Certificates, Carbon Dioxide
Credits, Energy Efficiency
Credits and "Pollution Free Power™"
energy project development services. From
project design and engineering, to financing permitting and installation,
we provide turnkey solutions. This includes Solar
Water Heating Systems, Solar
Electric Power Systems, Solar
Cogeneration and Solar
Trigeneration power and energy systems. We also offer
energy-saving technologies that may include; Absorption
Chillers, Adsorption Chillers, Automated
Demand Response, Cogeneration, Demand
Response Programs, Demand Side
Management, Energy Master
Planning, Engine Driven Chillers,
Trigeneration and Energy
Emission Reduction Credits,
Reductions, Tradable Renewable
Energy Certificates, Carbon Dioxide
Credits, Energy Efficiency
Credits and "Pollution Free Power™"
energy project development services.
Cleaner, Greener Power & Energy Solutions™ project
development services are one of our specialties. These projects are Kyoto
Protocol compliant and generate clean energy and significantly fewer
greenhouse gas emissions. Unlike most companies, we are equipment
supplier/vendor neutral. This means we help our clients select the best
equipment for their specific application. This approach provides our
customers with superior performance, decreased operating expenses and
increased return on investment.
Technologies, located in Houston, Texas, provides
project development services that generate clean energy and significantly
reduce greenhouse gas emissions and
carbon dioxide emissions.
Included in this are our
products and services which includes renewable
energy technologies, waste to energy,
waste to watts™ and waste
heat recovery solutions. Other project development
technologies include; Anaerobic Digester,
Anaerobic Lagoon, Biogas
Recovery, BioMethane, Biomass
Gasification, and Landfill Gas To
Energy, project development services.
services provided by Cogeneration Technologies includes the following
power and energy project development services:
Engineering Feasibility & Economic Analysis Studies
Procurement and Construction
Engineering & Permitting
Funding & Financing Options; including Equity Investment, Debt
Financing, Lease and Municipal Lease
Savings Program with No Capital Investment from Qualified Clients
Party Ownership and Project Development
Tag (Renewable Energy Credit, Carbon Dioxide Credits, Emission
Reduction Credits) Brokerage Services; Application and Permitting
are Renewable Energy
Technologies specialists and develop clean power and energy projects
that will generate a "Renewable
Energy Credit," Carbon
Dioxide Credits and Emission
Reduction Credits. Some of our products and services solutions
and technologies include; Absorption
Chillers, Adsorption Chillers, Automated
Demand Response, Biodiesel
Refineries, Biofuel Refineries, Biomass
Gasification, BioMethane, Canola
Biodiesel, Coconut Biodiesel, Cogeneration,
Concentrating Solar Power, Demand
Response Programs, Demand Side
Conservation Measures, Energy
Master Planning, Engine Driven
Chillers, Geothermal Heatpumps,
Groundsource Heatpumps, Solar
CHP, Solar Cogeneration, Rapeseed
Biodiesel, Solar Electric Heat
Pumps, Solar Electric Power
Systems, Solar Heating and
Cooling, Solar Trigeneration, Soy
Biodiesel, Trigeneration, and Watersource
For more information: call us at: 832-758-0027
What is a "Renewable Energy Credit?"
One Renewable Energy Credit or "REC" represents one megawatt hour
(MWh) of renewable energy that is physically metered and verified from the
generator, or the renewable energy project.
"REC's" are created
when a Renewable Energy project is certified and begins producing
renewable energy. Renewable energy projects create green power which
helps reduce pollution. Renewable Energy Credits are the group of environmental benefits
society benefits from in the production of green power. The
green-power (electricity) is sold into the local electric grid where the
renewable energy project is located. The REC's are sold separately
as a commodity into the marketplace.
“In a REC deal, the power from the new renewable energy facility is not physically delivered to the customer, but the environmental benefits created by the facility are attributed to that
customer, directly offsetting the environmental impact of the customer’s conventional energy use.” --Bonneville Environmental Foundation
REC Offset - An REC offset represents one megawatt hour (MWh) of renewable energy from an existing facility, which may be used in place of an REC to meet a renewable energy requirement imposed under this section. REC offsets may not be traded.
Renewable Energy Credit (REC or credit) - An REC represents one megawatt hour (MWh) of renewable energy that is physically metered and verified.
Renewable Energy Credit Account (REC account) - An account maintained by the renewable energy credits trading program administrator for the purpose of tracking the production, sale, transfer, purchase, and retirement of RECs by a program participant.
Renewable Energy Credit (trading program) - The process of awarding, trading, tracking, and submitting RECs as a means of meeting the renewable energy requirements.
Renewable Energy Resource - A resource that produces energy derived from renewable energy technologies.
Renewable Energy Technology - Any technology that exclusively relies on an energy source that is naturally regenerated over a short time and derived directly from the sun, indirectly from the sun, or from moving water or other natural movements and mechanisms of the environment. Renewable energy technologies include those that rely on energy derived directly from the sun, on wind, geothermal, hydroelectric, wave, or tidal energy, or on biomass or biomass-based waste products, including landfill gas. A renewable energy technology does not rely on energy resources derived from fossil fuels, or waste products from inorganic sources.
What is BioMethane and BioMethanation?
BioMethane is a renewable energy/fuel, with properties similar to natural
gas, produced from "biomass." Unlike natural gas, BioMethane is a renewable energy.
The cost of producing
BioMethane, after installation of the
BioMass Gasification equipment used to produce BioMethane (the process of
making BioMethane is called "BioMethanation") is called is
Again, unlike the price of natural gas, which has been around $6.00/mmbtu
for the past year.
Gasification and BioMethanation Technology
process of Biomass Gasification produces BioMethane. BioMethane is also
produced in anaerobic digesters, in the process called anaerobic
digestion. BioMethane is a renewable energy resource, as opposed to
natural gas (methane), which is a non-renewable energy resource.
BioMethane has similar qualities of methane and both are used in
interchangeably, and each may be a substitute for the other.
The production and disposal of large quantities of organic and biodegradable waste without adequate
or proper treatment results in widespread environmental pollution. Some waste streams can be treated by conventional methods like aeration. Compared to the aerobic method,
the use of anaerobic digesters in processing these waste streams provides
greater economic and environmental benefits and advantages.
As previously stated,
Biomethanation is the process of conversion of organic matter in the waste (liquid or solid) to
BioMethane (sometimes referred to as "BioGas) and manure by microbial action in the absence of
air, known as "anaerobic digestion."
Conventional digesters such as sludge digesters and anaerobic CSTR (Continuous Stirred Tank
Reactors) have been used for many decades in sewage treatment plants for stabilizing the activated sludge and sewage solids.
Interest in BioMethanation as an
economic, environmental and energy-saving waste treatment continues to gain
greater interest world-wide and has led to the development of a range of anaerobic reactor designs. These high-rate,
high-efficiency anaerobic digesters are also referred to as "retained biomass reactors" since they are based on the concept of retaining viable biomass by sludge immobilization.
Biomass Gasification and the Production of BioMethane
Biomass is a renewable energy resource which includes a wide variety if organic resources. A few of these include wood, agricultural residue/waste, and animal manure.
Biomass Gasification is the process in which BioMethane is produced in the BioMass Gasification process. The BioMethane is then used like any other fuel, such as natural gas, which is not a
Historically, biomass use has been characterized by low btu and low efficiencies. However, today biomass gasification is gaining world-wide recognition and favor due to the economic and environmental benefits. In terms of economic benefits, the cost of the
BioMethane is essentially free, after the cost of the equipment is installed.
BioMethane, probably the most important and efficient energy-conversion technology for a wide variety of biomass fuels.
The large-scale deployment of efficient technology along with interventions to enhance the sustainable supply of biomass fuels can transform the energy supply situation in rural areas. It has the potential to become the growth engine for rural development in the country.
Principles of Biomass Gasification
Biomass fuels such as firewood and agriculture-generated residues and wastes
are generally organic. They contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen along with some moisture. Under controlled conditions, characterized by low oxygen supply and high temperatures, most biomass materials can be converted into a gaseous fuel known as producer gas, which consists of carbon monoxide, hydrogen,
carbon dioxide, methane and nitrogen. This thermo-chemical conversion of solid biomass into gaseous fuel is called biomass gasification. The producer gas so produced has low a calorific
value (1000-1200 Kcal/Nm3), but can be burnt with a high efficiency and a good degree of control without emitting smoke. Each kilogram of air-dry biomass (10% moisture content) yields
about 2.5 Nm3 of producer gas. In energy terms, the conversion efficiency of the gasification process is in the range of 60%-70%.
Multiple Advantages of Biomass Gasification in Methane Production
Conversion of solid biomass into combustible gas has all the advantages associated with using gaseous and liquid fuels such as clean combustion, compact burning equipment,
high thermal efficiency and a good degree of control. In locations, where biomass is already available at reasonable low prices (e.g. rice mills) or in industries using fuel wood,
gasifier systems offer definite economic advantages. Biomass gasification technology is also environment-friendly, because of the firewood savings and reduction in CO2 emissions.
Biomass gasification technology has the potential to replace diesel and other petroleum products in several applications, foreign exchange.
Applications for Biomass Gasification
Thermal applications: cooking, water boiling, steam generation, drying etc.
Motive power applications: Using producer gas as a fuel in IC engines for applications such as water pumping
Electricity generation: Using producer gas in dual-fuel mode in diesel engines/as the only fuel in spark ignition engines/in gas turbines.
Publicly Owned Treatment Works ("POTW's")
or Wastewater Treatment Systems
More and more,
cities, counties and
municipalities are faced with greater environmental compliance issues relating
to their municipally-owned landfills, Publicly Owned Treatment Works ("POTW's")
or Wastewater Treatment Systems.
A city's landfill and/or POTW provides an excellent
opportunity for cities to reduce their emissions as well as provide an
additional revenue stream. These facilities may have valuable gases
that our company recovers and pipes to one of our clean,
environmentally-friendly cogeneration or trigeneration energy
company provides economic and ecological
solutions for cities and municipalities
with environmental liabilities (air emissions) associated with POTW operation
and provide a new cash flow simultaneously. We offer turn-key
solutions for cities that includes the preliminary feasibility analysis,
engineering and design, project management, permitting and
commissioning. We provide very attractive financing packages for
cities that does not add to a city's liability, yet provides a valuable
new revenue stream. And, we are also able to offer a turn-key
solution for qualified municipalities that includes our company owning,
operating and maintaining the onsite power and energy plant.
At the heart of
the system is a (Bio) Methane Gas Recovery system similar those used in Flare Gas Recovery or Vapor Recovery
Units. Methane Gas Recovery, Flare Gas Recovery,
Vapor Recovery, Waste to Energy and Vapor Recovery Units all recover valuable
"waste" or vented fuels that can be used to provide fuel for an
onsite power generation plant. Our waste-to-energy and waste to fuel
systems significantly or entirely, reduces your facility's emissions (such
SOx, H2S, CO
, CO2 and other Hazardous Air Pollutants/Greenhouse Gases) and convert
these valuable emissions from an environmental problem into a new cash
revenue stream and profit center.
and vapor recovery units can be located in hundreds of applications and
locations. At a landfill, Wastewaster Treatment System (or Publicly Owned
Treatment Works - "POTW") gases from the facility can be
captured from the anaerobic digesters, and manifolded/piped to one of our
onsite power generation plants, and make, essentially, "free"
electricity for your facility's use. These
that are generated from municipally owned landfills or wastewater
treatment plants have low btu content or heating values, ranging around
550-650 btu's. This makes them
unsuitable for use in natural gas applications. When burned as fuel to
generate electricity, however, these gases become a valuable source of
"renewable" power and energy for the facility's use or resale to
the electric grid.
heat (steam and/or hot water) is required, we will incorporate our
cogeneration or trigeneration system into the project and provide some, or
all, of your hot water/steam requirements. Similarly, at crude oil
refineries, gas processing plants, exploration and production sites, and
gasoline storage/tank farm site, we convert your facility's "waste
fuel" and environmental liabilities into profitable,
Our Methane Gas
Recovery systems are designed and engineered for
these specific applications. It is important to note that there are
many internal combustion engines or combustion turbines that are NOT
suited for these applications. Our systems are engineered precisely
for your facility's application, and our engineers know the engines and
turbines that will work as well as those that don't. More
importantly, we are vendor and supplier neutral! Our only
concerns are for the optimum system solution
for your company, and we look past brand names and sales propaganda to
determine the optimum system, which may incorporate either one or more;
gas engine genset(s) or gas turbine genset(s), in cogeneration or
trigeneration mode - in trigeneration mode, we incorporate absorption
chillers to make chilled water for process or air-conditioning, fuel
gas conditioning equipment and gas compressor(s).
systems includes design, engineering, permitting, project management,
commissioning, as well as financing for our qualified customers.
Additionally, we may be interested in owning and operating the flare gas
recovery or vapor recovery units. For these applications, there is no
investment required from the customer.
information, please provide us with the following information about the
flare gas or vapor:
Type of gas
being flared or vented (methane, bio-gas, digester, landfill, etc.).
Fuel/Gas analysis which provides us with the btu's (heating value) and
the composition of the gas and its' impurities such as methane (and
the percentage of methane), soloxanes, carbon dioxide, hydrogen,
hydrogen sulfide, and any other hydrocarbons.
of gas available, from all sources, at the facility.
Waste Heat Recovery
Many industrial processes
generate large amounts of waste energy that simply pass out of plant
stacks and into the atmosphere or are otherwise lost. Most industrial
waste heat streams are liquid, gaseous, or a combination of the two and
have temperatures from slightly above ambient to over 2000 degrees F.
Stack exhaust losses are inherent in all fuel-fired processes and increase
with the exhaust temperature and the amount of excess air the exhaust
contains. At stack gas temperatures greater than 1000 degrees F, the heat
going up the stack is likely to be the single biggest loss in the process.
Above 1800 degrees F, stack losses will consume at least half of the total
fuel input to the process. Yet, the energy that is recovered from waste
heat streams could displace part or all of the energy input needs for a
unit operation within a plant. Therefore, waste heat recovery offers a
great opportunity to productively use this energy, reducing overall plant
energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions.
Waste heat recovery methods used with industrial process heating
operations intercept the waste gases before they leave the process,
extract some of the heat they contain, and recycle that heat back to the
Common methods of
recovering heat include direct heat recovery to the process, recuperators/regenerators,
and waste heat boilers. Unfortunately, the economic benefits of waste heat
recovery do not justify the cost of these systems in every application.
For example, heat recovery from lower temperature waste streams (e.g., hot
water or low-temperature flue gas) is thermodynamically limited. Equipment
fouling, occurring during the handling of “dirty” waste streams, is
another barrier to more widespread use of heat recovery systems.
Innovative, affordable waste heat recovery methods that are
ultra-efficient, are applicable to low-temperature streams, or are
suitable for use with corrosive or “dirty” wastes could expand the
number of viable applications of waste heat recovery, as well as improve
the performance of existing applications.
Various Methods for Recovery of Waste Heat
Waste Heat Recovery Methods – A large amount of energy in the form of
medium- to low-temperature gases or low-temperature liquids (less than
about 250 degrees F) is released from process heating equipment, and much
of this energy is wasted.
Conversion of Low Temperature Exhaust Waste Heat – making efficient use
of the low temperature waste heat generated by prime movers such as
micro-turbines, IC engines, fuel cells and other electricity producing
technologies. The energy content of the waste heat must be high enough to
be able to operate equipment found in cogeneration and trigeneration power
and energy systems such as absorption chillers, refrigeration
applications, heat amplifiers, dehumidifiers, heat pumps for hot water,
turbine inlet air cooling and other similar devices.
Conversion of Low Temperature Waste Heat into Power –The steam-Rankine
cycle is the principle method used for producing electric power from high
temperature fluid streams. For the conversion of low temperature heat into
power, the steam-Rankine cycle may be a possibility, along with other
known power cycles, such as the organic-Rankine cycle.
Small to Medium Air-Cooled Commercial Chillers – All existing commercial
chillers, whether using waste heat, steam or natural gas, are water-cooled
(i.e., they must be connected to cooling towers which evaporate water into
the atmosphere to aid in cooling). This requirement generally limits the
market to large commercial-sized units (150 tons or larger), because of
the maintenance requirements for the cooling towers. Additionally, such
units consume water for cooling, limiting their application in arid
regions of the U.S. No suitable small-to-medium size (15 tons to 200 tons)
air-cooled absorption chillers are commercially available for these U.S.
climates. A small number of prototype air-cooled absorption chillers have
been developed in Japan, but they use “hardware” technology that is
not suited to the hotter temperatures experienced in most locations in the
United States. Although developed to work with natural gas firing, these
prototype air-cooled absorption chillers would also be suited to use waste
heat as the fuel.
Recovery of Waste Heat in Cogeneration
Trigeneration Power Plants
In most cogeneration and
trigeneration power and energy systems, the exhaust gas from the electric
generation equipment is ducted to a heat exchanger to recover the thermal
energy in the gas. These heat exchangers are air-to-water heat exchangers,
where the exhaust gas flows over some form of tube and fin heat exchange
surface and the heat from the exhaust gas is transferred to make hot water
or steam. The hot water or steam is then used to provide hot water or
steam heating and/or to operate thermally activated equipment, such as an absorption
chiller for cooling or a desiccant dehumidifer for dehumidification.
Many of the waste heat
recovery technologies used in building co/trigeneration systems require
hot water, some at moderate pressures of 15 to 150 psig. In the cases
where additional steam or pressurized hot water is needed, it may be
necessary to provide supplemental heat to the exhaust gas with a duct
In some applications
air-to-air heat exchangers can be used. In other instances, if the
emissions from the generation equipment are low enough, such as is with
many of the microturbine technologies, the hot exhaust gases can be mixed
with make-up air and vented directly into the heating system for building
In the majority of
installations, a flapper damper or "diverter" is employed to
vary flow across the heat transfer surfaces of the heat exchanger to
maintain a specific design temperature of the hot water or steam
Heat Recovery Installation
In some co/trigeneration
designs, the exhaust gases can be used to activate a thermal wheel or a
desiccant dehumidifier. Thermal wheels use the exhaust gas to heat a
wheel with a medium that absorbs the heat and then transfers the heat when
the wheel is rotated into the incoming airflow.
A professional engineer should
be involved in designing and sizing of the waste heat recovery section.
For a proper and economical operation, the design of the heat recovery
section involves consideration of many related factors, such as the
thermal capacity of the exhaust gases, the exhaust flow rate, the sizing
and type of heat exchanger, and the desired parameters over a various
range of operating conditions of the co/trigeneration system — all of
which need to be considered for proper and economical operation.
information on Publicly Owned Treatment Works & Wastewater Treatment
Systems, Flare Gas Recovery, Vapor Recovery Units, Waste To
Fuel/Waste To Energy systems, and Waste Heat Recovery.