BioFuel Industries
A Cogeneration Technologies Company
E-mail:  info @ cogeneration .net  Tel. (832) 758 - 0027

Cooler, Cleaner, Greener Power & Energy Solutions 

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Palm Oil Biodiesel
www.PalmOilBiodiesel.com

We Buy, Sell, Develop and Invest in
"Sustainable" Oil Palm Plantations

Coming soon - the International Crude Palm Oil Exchange

We buy and sell Crude Palm Oil and Refined Palm Oil

Our New Biodiesel Refineries Will Produce B100 Biodiesel 
for as Little as $
.50 cents/gallon! (plus cost of feedstock)

B100 Biodiesel: 100% Clean, 100% Renewable, 100% Affordable Fuel



THE SITE FOR OUR NEXT BIODIESEL PLANT HAS BEEN SELECTED - 

LOCATION: HOUSTON SHIP CHANNEL AREA.

YEAR 1 PRODUCTION OF B100 BIODIESEL:  
34 MILLION GALLONS/YEAR

YEAR 2 PRODUCTION OF B100 BIODIESEL:
100 MILLION GALLONS/YEAR

CONSTRUCTION TIME TO COMPLETE NEW BIODIESEL PLANT (CONVERSION OF EXISTING FACILITY):
8 MONTHS

THIS BIODIESEL PLANT WILL RUN MULTIPLE FEEDSTOCKS.

ALL B100 BIODIESEL WE WILL PRODUCE IS PRE-SOLD.

For more information on our newest biodiesel plant, call (512) 220 - 1498 and leave your name and contact information with our voice mail service or send email to:     info @ RenewableEnergyInstitute . org

B100 Biodiesel 100% Clean, 100% Renewable, 100% Affordable Fuel

We buy and sell Palm Oil Biodiesel, Crude Palm Oil, Refined Palm Oil and have plans to start producing and blending our own, "home-grown, clean, renewable, and American made" 

B100 Biodiesel produced from Palm Oil or coconuts will help to end our/your country's reliance on unstable, non-renewable, and "dirty" middle-east oil that pollutes our environment and causes inflated energy prices. 

Our company builds new Biodiesel Refineries throughout the U.S. and now, developing countries with specialized feedstocks that include coconut, palm oil and our agricultural team is now reviewing the opportunities of making B100 Biodiesel from Jatropha for what we call "Jatropha Biodiesel."  

In association with a major U.S. university, we incorporate the latest technologies in the production of B100 Biodiesel from oilseed crops, that will provide our biodiesel refineries with the highest efficiencies. We also are an importer of (vegetable) energy oils, where we refine it into Biodiesel fuel for use in our cogeneration and trigeneration power plants.  Additionally, we buy/sell/broker (vegetable) energy oils in the international market

We also plan to be the international leader and supplier of Biodiesel Refineries.  For qualified clients, we provide "turnkey" biodiesel refinery services, including; EPC (Engineering, Procurement, Construction), Investment/Funding, Permitting, and Emission Reduction Credits under the Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism.  For more information, call (832) 758 - 0027

Cogeneration Technologies, is based in Houston, Texas and provides the following power and energy project development services: 

  • Project Engineering Feasibility & Economic Analysis Studies  

  • Engineering, Procurement and Construction

  • Environmental Engineering & Permitting 

  • Project Funding & Financing Options; including Equity Investment, Debt Financing, Lease and Municipal Lease

  • Shared/Guaranteed Savings Program with No Capital Investment from Qualified Clients 

  • Project Commissioning 

  • 3rd Party Ownership and Project Development

  • Long-term Service Agreements

  • Operations & Maintenance 

  • Green Tag (Renewable Energy Credit, Carbon Dioxide Credits, Emission Reduction Credits) Brokerage Services; Application and Permitting

We are specialists in Renewable Energy Technologies, Demand Side Management and in developing clean power/energy projects that will generate a Renewable Energy CreditCarbon Dioxide Credits and/or Emission Reduction Credits.  Through our strategic partners, we offer "turnkey" power/energy project development products and services that may include; Absorption Chillers, Adsorption Chillers, Automated Demand Response, Biodiesel Refineries, Biofuel Refineries, Biomass Gasification, BioMethane, Canola Biodiesel, Coconut Biodiesel, Cogeneration, Concentrating Solar Power, Demand Response Programs, Demand Side Management, Energy Conservation Measures, Energy Master Planning, Engine Driven Chillers, Solar CHP, Solar Cogeneration, Rapeseed Biodiesel, Solar Electric Heat Pumps, Solar Electric Power Systems, Solar Heating and Cooling, Solar Trigeneration, Soy Biodiesel, and Trigeneration.

For more information: call us at:  832-758-0027

Look at the past 6 years production of B100 Biodiesel in the U.S.:

1999:  500,000 gallons of B100 Biodiesel were produced in the U.S. 
2004:  25 million gallons of B100 Biodiesel produced in the U.S.

THAT'S A 5,000% INCREASE IN ONLY 5 YEARS!

2005:  75 million gallons of B100 Biodiesel produced in the U.S.  

We are planning new Biodiesel plants throughout the United States, the Caribbean, Central America and Southeast Asia. We are focused in producing the following B100 Biodiesel:

*  Coconut Biodiesel from coconuts - Investments for new Biodiesel
plants now planned for locations in the U.S. (Hawaii), Caribbean, Asia,
Central America and Southeast Asia (See our website at: 
www.CoconutBiodiesel.com
for more information)

*  Jatropha Biodiesel from the Jatropha Curcas plant - Investments for
new Biodiesel plants now planned for locations in Asia, India, and
Southeast Asia  (See our website at:  www.JatrophaBiodiesel.com for
more information)

*  Palm Oil Biodiesel from Palm Trees - Investments for new Biodiesel
plants now planned for locations in the U.S., Caribbean, Asia, Central
America and Southeast Asia  (See our website at:
www.PalmOilBiodiesel.com
for more information)

*  Soy Biodiesel from Soybean Oil - Investments for new Biodiesel 
plants now planned for locations in the U.S., Asia, Central America and
Southeast Asia (See our website at:  www.SoyBiodiesel.net for more information)

 Qualified Investors - Ask About Investment Opportunities In our New B100 Biodiesel Plants.

  1. Large market potential for profits in new B100 Biodiesel production.
  2. Our B100 Biodiesel plants are "optimum" designs.
  3. We have markets for all of our B100 Biodiesel production, as well as the co-product(s).
  4. We provide the "turnkey" project development.  
  5. Depending on how we structure each new B100 Biodiesel plant and its' investment, as well as the country the B100 Biodiesel plant is located in, investors may receive incentives in the form of one or more of the following; ITC's, depreciation, royalties, limited partner income, or dividend c hecks.
  6. Help us make the world a "cooler, cleaner, greener" place to live!
  7. We are also making investments in land that is located near major feedstock/plantations and locations of the following B100 Biodiesel feedstocks:

    * Coconuts
    * Jatropha
    * Palm Tree
    * Soybean

    Investment opportunities in land cultivation available with first year payback and long term recurring revenue. 

We are looking for investors who would like to take advantage of either project ownership or those who would simply like to buy tax credits.   We have feedstock under contract for 20 years, so we need money to build more plants.  Call or email us today to find out more about whether an investment in one of our new B100 Biodiesel plants is right for you. 

Note:  Seek the advice of your attorney and/or financial advisor before making any investment, including an investment in our new B100 Biodiesel plants.  Like any new and fast-growing business, the future profitability and return on investment, if any, are dependent on a large number of conditions, some of which include; supply and demand for our products, location of the B100 Biodiesel plant, feedstock(s) for each new B100 Biodiesel plant, agricultural conditions of the country and region where we obtain our feedstock, political, economic and socio-economic conditions, global/regional and market  prices and fluctuations of our production output and co-products, foreign exchange markets and other currency conditions/variations, labor and management conditions, among others.  This is neither an investment offering, nor a registered security.  Seek competent legal and financial advice before making any investment!

Grow Your Own "Green" BioDiesel
Increase Profits for Farmers, Improve the Local and Global Economy and Ecology, 
Decrease Pollution and End the Monopoly of OPEC/Foreign Supplies of "Dirty" Fuels!  

At an average production rate of 260 - 300 gallons per acre, Coconut Oil ("BioDiesel") is one of the most efficient energy crops, and second only to Crude Palm Oil that is produced from palm trees, and at an average yield of 600-700 gallons per acre.

What is Biodiesel?

Biodiesel is an environmentally- friendly, renewable energy source that could also produce cost savings for taxpayers and private businesses and is produced from farmers that grow various fuel crops.   

What is B2 Biodiesel?

Pure biodiesel or B100 Biodiesel, is a non-toxic, biodegradable, renewable, carbon-neutral, sulfur-free, home-grown fuel that replaces petroleum diesel.  When blended with equal parts of B100 biodiesel, creates B50 biodiesel, or 50% biodiesel and 50% petroleum diesel. Therefore, B2 Biodiesel, is comprised of a "blend" of 2% Biodiesel and 98% petroleum diesel.

What is B5 Biodiesel?

Pure biodiesel or B100 Biodiesel, is a non-toxic, biodegradable, renewable, carbon-neutral, sulfur-free, home-grown fuel that replaces petroleum diesel.  When blended with equal parts of B100 biodiesel, creates B50 biodiesel, or 50% biodiesel and 50% petroleum diesel. Therefore, B5 Biodiesel, is comprised of a "blend" of 5% Biodiesel and 95% petroleum diesel.

What is B10 Biodiesel?

Pure biodiesel or B100 Biodiesel, is a non-toxic, biodegradable, renewable, carbon-neutral, sulfur-free, domestic fuel that when blended with 9 parts petroleum diesel to one part biodiesel creates B10 biodiesel, or 20% biodiesel and 80% petroleum diesel.

What is B20 Biodiesel?

B20 Biodiesel is one the most popular biodiesel blends presently available thoughout much of the U.S., Canada and Europe.  Pure biodiesel or B100 Biodiesel, is a non-toxic, biodegradable, renewable, carbon-neutral, sulfur-free, domestic fuel that when mixed with four parts petroleum diesel to one part biodiesel creates B20 biodiesel, or 20% biodiesel and 80% petroleum diesel.

What is B50 Biodiesel?

Pure biodiesel or B100 Biodiesel, is a non-toxic, biodegradable, renewable, carbon-neutral, sulfur-free, domestic petroleum diesel when blended with equal parts of B100 biodiesel creates B50 biodiesel, or 50% biodiesel and 50% petroleum diesel.

What is B95 Biodiesel?

Pure biodiesel or B100 Biodiesel, is a non-toxic, biodegradable, renewable, carbon-neutral, sulfur-free, home-grown fuel that replaces petroleum diesel.  When blended with equal parts of B100 biodiesel, creates B50 biodiesel, or 50% biodiesel and 50% petroleum diesel. Therefore, B95 Biodiesel, is comprised of a "blend" of 95% Biodiesel and 5% petroleum diesel.

What is B99 Biodiesel?

Pure biodiesel or B100 Biodiesel, is a non-toxic, biodegradable, renewable, carbon-neutral, sulfur-free, home-grown fuel that replaces petroleum diesel.  When blended with equal parts of B100 biodiesel, creates B50 biodiesel, or 50% biodiesel and 50% petroleum diesel. Therefore, B99 Biodiesel, is comprised of a "blend" of 99% Biodiesel and 1% petroleum diesel.

What is B100 Biodiesel?

Pure biodiesel is referred to as B100 Biodiesel, which is a non-toxic, biodegradable, renewable, carbon-neutral, sulfur-free, domestically "grown" biofuel. B100 Biodiesel is refined from many American-grown fuel/energy crops such as soybeans, canola, rapeseed and even palm trees. 

Can B20 Biodiesel cause, or prevent problems for my diesel engine?

This depends on the age of the car. Biodiesel is a solvent and may affect some seals, gaskets, and adhesives, particularly those made before 1993 and those made from natural or nitrile rubber. Most diesel engines manufactured after 1994 have been constructed with gaskets and seals that are biodiesel resistant. Earlier engine models or rebuilds may use older gasket and seal materials and present a risk of swelling, leaking, or failure. Fuel pumps may contain rubber valves that may fail. 

B20 Biodiesel cleans dirty engine deposits, which may result in you needing an initial fuel 
filter change. 

B20 Biodiesel fuel is being widely used in various areas around the United States and Canada. Its production and distribution is expanding rapidly throughout the U.S. and Canada. 

Now that B20 Biodiesel has been gaining wide-spread distribution and popularity, questions are being asked for which some of the more common questions are answered below.

Does B20 Biodiesel perform as well as regular petroleum diesel?

Yes! In most cases you will not be unable to tell the difference between the two fuels, although some notice the diesel exhaust lightening in color due to the reduced emissions. B20 Biodiesel can be used in existing engines and fuel injection equipment with little impact to operating performance. In more than 30 million miles of in-field demonstrations, B20 has produced similar fuel consumption, horsepower, torque, and haulage rates as conventional diesel fuel. B20 Biodiesel also has superior lubricity, which helps prevent engine wear, plus it has a higher cetane number than U.S. diesel fuel, which classifies B20 as a premium grade fuel.B20 has a BTU content that falls in the range between #1 and #2 diesel fuel.

How does B20 Biodiesel fuel get shipped and distributed?

B20 Biodiesel is shipped throughout the U.S. and Canada as B100 Biodiesel. Once it arrives in at our partner company's bulk fuel facilities, it is mixed in various ratios of between 20%-80% with petroleum diesel.  To produce B20 Biodiesel, we blend one part of B100 Biodiesel with 4 parts of petroleum diesel. The blended B20 Biodiesel is then delivered to our fuel users and public sales points throughout the U.S. and Canada.  

Can I use B20 Biodiesel during the winter and long periods of cold weather?

Yes!  In fact, B20 Biodiesel has almost the same cold weather properties as regular 
petroleum diesel. B20 Biodiesel is used throughout the U.S. National Parks Services, including cold-weather climates such as Yellowstone National Park, without any problems or complaints.  

Clean the Air We Breathe!

B20 Biodiesel burns significantly cleaner than regular petroleum diesel. This means engines in cars powered by B20 Biodiesel fuel will significantly fewer harmful exhaust emissions than those of regular petroleum diesel. In fact, the higher the percentage of biofuel used, the greater the reduction in dangerous emissions. 

More specifically, the B20 Biodiesel fuel used in your diesel engine means you are reducing the amount of harmful emissions from your car or truck into our air by the following amounts:

• Carbon monoxide -12.6%
• Hydrocarbons -11.0%
• Particulates -18.0%
• Air toxics -12%–20%
• Mutagenicity -20%

Grow Your Own "Green" BioDiesel
Increase Profits for Farmers, Improve the Local and Global Economy and Ecology, 
Decrease Pollution and End the Monopoly of OPEC/Foreign Supplies of "Dirty" Fuels! 
 

At an average production rate of 600 gallons to 700 gallons per acre, Palm Tree Oil ("BioDiesel") is the most efficient energy crop, and about 2 1/2 times more efficient as its next closest energy plant/oil seed;  coconut oil.

What is Palm Oil Biodiesel?

Palm Oil Biodiesel is an environmentally- friendly, renewable energy source that could also produce cost savings for taxpayers and private businesses and is produced from palm trees.

The Palm Oil that is "harvested" and produced from palm trees is referred to as "Crude Palm Oil." The crude palm oil is then shipped to be refined by a palm oil refinery.  The output is then referred to as Refined Palm Oil which is then suitable to be used as a biodiesel fuel, or blended with petroleum diesel.

Palm oil with an estimated global (annual) production of 25-27 million tons, is the second most produced oil in the world. By country, the leading producers of palm oil are Malaysia (13 million tons) and 
Indonesia (10 million tons), and together they have provided about 80% to 90% of the world's palm oil. 

Approximately 80% (21-23 million tons) of the global production of palm oil is exported to other countries. Malaysia exports about 12 million tons annually and Indonesia exports about 7 million tons annually to the major importers of palm oil, which include; India, China and the European Union.

More about Palm Oil

Crude Palm Oil and Refined Palm Oil are the most traded vegetable oil in the world today.  Palm oils have been as a dietary nutrient for nearly five thousand years. Palm oil is harvested from the mesocarp of the Elaeis guineensis fruit, through a refining process that includes; cooking, mashing and pressing. In this process, the seeds are separated and after cracking and removing the shell, the kernel can be processed to yield palm kernel oil and palm kernel cake.

Palm trees are "unisexual" in that they have male and female flowers within the tree. The female flowers bears fruit known as "fresh fruit bunches" or "FFB."  Each palm tree is capable of bearing about 10 to 12 bunches per year.  Each FFB averages 1000 to 3000 fruits with weights varying between 40 to 70 pounds.

Crude palm oil - also referred to as "CPO" comes from the mesocarp (the fleshy portion of the fruit wall) and depending on the variety and age of the palm.  The CPO to bunch ratio is about 25 to 28 percent.

Refined palm oil - after crude palm oil is refined, it is then referred to as Refined Palm Oil, and can then be used in a number of applications, including as a substitute for petroleum diesel - which is known as Palm Oil Biodiesel.  Additionally, Palm Oil Biodiesel can be blended with petroleum diesel. What is Canola Biodiesel?

Canola biodiesel is an environmentally- friendly, renewable energy source that could also produce cost savings for taxpayers and private businesses and is produced from farmers that grow canola. 

Biodiesel produced from canola and rapeseed oil is superior to soy biodiesel. Especially due to the widely varying price fluctuations of soybeans. And because the feedstock (the oil produced from the fuel crop, such as soybeans, rapeseed or canola) to make biodiesel makes up about 80% of the cost for 
100 % biodiesel, basic economics dictate that the feedstock be obtained from the least-cost source, which is going to be either canola or rapeseed.  

Initial research conducted by the University of Saskatchewan and the AAFC Saskatoon Research Centre has found that each ton of renewable biodiesel fuel saves five times its weight in diesel fuel. As well, engines using biodiesel demonstrate wear rates as much as 50% lower than those using regular commercial fuels – effectively doubling engine life.

Canola is a member of the Brassica Family, which includes broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, mustard, radish, and turnip. It is a variant of the crop rapeseed. Grown for its seed, the seed is crushed for the oil contained within. After the oil is extracted, the by-product is a protein-richmeal used by the intensive livestock industry. 

Canola is a very small seed, which means sowing depth must be controlled. The current sowing practice is to cover the seed lightly with soil, which provides more protection from drying out after germination. 

Canola is generally sown in autumn and develops over winter, with flowers emerging in the spring and is harvested early summer. With a growing period of around 180-200 days climatic effects such as sudden heat waves can reduce yields and hot dry conditions can limit its oil content. Summer weather ensures low moisture (less than 6%) at harvest. Carry-in stocks of canola are minimal because of a lack of on-farm storage. Canola is a good rotational crop, acting as a break crop for cereal root diseases. However for disease-related reasons, a rotation period of 3-5 years is required for canola crops. of iodine in grams absorbed per 100 ml of oil is then the IV. The higher the IV, the more unsaturated (the greater the number of double bonds available) is the oil and the higher the potential to ‘gum up’ when used as a fuel in an engine. Though some oils have a low IV and are suitable without any further processing other than extraction and filtering, the majority of vegetable and animal oils have an IV which does not permit their use as a neat fuel. 

Generally speaking, an IV of less than about 25 is required if the neat oil is to be used in unmodified diesel engines and this severely limited the types of oil that can be used.

The IV can be easily reduced by hydrogenation of the oil (reacting the oil with hydrogen), the hydrogen breaking the double bond and converting the fat or oil into a more saturated oil and reducing the tendency of the oil to polymerise. However this process also tends to increase the melting point of the oil and converts the oil into margarine. Only coconut oil has an IV low enough to be used without any special precautions in a unmodified diesel engine. However with a melting point of 25°C, the use of coconut oil in cooler areas would obviously lead to problems. 

Linseed oil could be mixed with petroleum diesel at a ratio of up to 1:8 to give an equivalent IV in the mid-twenties. Likewise coconut oil can be thinned with diesel or kerosene to render it less viscous in cooler climates. Obviously the solubility of the oil in petroleum also needs to be taken into account. Another method is to emulsify the oil or fat with ethanol. Most vegetable oils are a mixture of different esters such as oleic acid (main constituent of olive oil), ricinoleic acid (main constituent of castor oil), linoleic acid (main constituents of linseed oil), palmitic acid (main constituent of palm kernel oil) and so on. In an analogous way to that in which crude oil is refined to make a useable automotive fuel, canola oil needs to be transesterified to make an automotive fuel that is useable in unmodified diesel engines. 

When the oil is processed in a transesterfication process, the various fatty acids react with the alcohol to form a mixture of lighter esters and glycerol. The name of the specific fuel is called after the plant (or animal) source plus the alcohol. Made from rapeseed oil and methanol, the biodiesel is called Rape Methyl Ester (RME), from canola oil and ethanol, Canola Ethyl Ester (CEE), and from used McDonald’s cooking oil and ethanol or methanol, ("McDiesel").


What is Rapeseed Biodiesel?

Rapeseed, some varieties of which are used to make mustard and others to make canola oil, is the preferred biodiesel feedstock in Europe. Depending on the variety, rapeseed oil contains about 40 to 50 percent of its weight in rapeseed is oil, as compared with only 20 percent for soybeans. It can be planted and harvested with the same equipment used for small grains. In addition, rapeseed oil offers certain advantages in the production of biodiesel.


What is "Global Warming Potential?

Global Warming Potential (GWP) is the index used to translate the level of emissions of various gases into a common measure in order to compare the relative radiative forcing of different gases without directly calculating the changes in atmospheric concentrations. 

GWPs are calculated as the ratio of the radiative forcing that would result from the emissions of one kilogram of a greenhouse gas to that from emission of one kilogram of carbon dioxide over a period of time (usually 100 years). Gases involved in complex atmospheric chemical processes have not been assigned GWPs due to complications that arise.

Greenhouse gases are expressed in terms of Carbon Dioxide Equivalent. The International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has presented these GWPs 
and regularly updates them in new assessments. The instantaneous radiative forcing that results from the addition of 1 kilogram of a gas to the atmosphere, relative to that of 1 kilogram of carbon dioxide. 

Over a time horizon of 100 years, methane has a GWP of 24.5, nitrous oxide has a GWP of 320, and CFC-11 has a GWP of 4,000

What Are Greenhouse Gases?

Some greenhouse gases occur naturally in the atmosphere, while others result from human activities. Naturally occurring greenhouse gases include water vapor,
carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone. Certain human activities, however, add to the levels of most of these naturally occurring gases:

Carbon dioxide is released to the atmosphere when solid waste, fossil fuels (oil, natural gas, and coal), and wood and wood products are burned. 

Methane is emitted during the production and transport of coal, natural gas, and oil. Methane emissions also result from the decomposition of organic wastes in municipal solid waste landfills, and the raising of livestock. More information on methane.

Nitrous oxide is emitted during agricultural and industrial activities, as well as during combustion of solid waste and fossil fuels. 

Very powerful greenhouse gases that are not naturally occurring include hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), which are generated in a variety of industrial processes.

Global Warming Potentials and Atmospheric Lifetimes (Years)

Gas

Atmospheric Lifetime

GWPa

Carbon dioxide (CO2)

50-200

1

Methane (CH4)b

12±3

21

Nitrous oxide (N2O)

120

310

HFC-23

264

11,700

HFC-32

5.6

650

HFC-125

32.6

2,800

HFC-134a

14.6

1,300

HFC-143a

48.3

3,800

HFC-152a

1.5

140

HFC-227ea

36.5

2,900

HFC-236fa

209

6,300

HFC-4310mee

17.1

1,300

CF4

50,000

6,500

C2F6

10,000

9,200

C4F10

2,600

7,000

C6F14

3,200

7,400

SF6

3,200

23,900


a 100 year time horizon
b The methane GWP includes the direct effects and those indirect effects due to the production of tropospheric ozone and stratospheric water vapor. The indirect effect due to the production of CO2 is not included.

For more information call:  832  - 758 - 0027

We provide turnkey services that removes Nitrogen Oxides, Nitrous Oxides and Sulfur Oxides. Unlike most companies, we are equipment supplier/vendor neutral. This means we help our clients select the best equipment for their specific application. This approach provides our customers with superior performance, decreased operating expenses and increased return on investment. Selective Catalytic Reduction systems are frequently used in removing NOx.

Our company provides turn-key project solutions that include all or part of the following: 

  • Engineering and Economic Feasibility Studies 

  • Project Design, Engineering & Permitting

  • Project Construction

  • Project Funding & Financing Options

  • Shared/Guaranteed Savings program with no capital requirements. 

  • Project Commissioning 

  • Operations & Maintenance 

For more information: call us at: 832-758-0027

What are Nitrogen Oxides?

Nitrogen oxides, or NOx, is the generic term for a group of highly reactive gases, all of which contain nitrogen and oxygen in varying amounts. Many of the nitrogen oxides are colorless and odorless. However, one common pollutant, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) along with particles in the air can often be seen as a reddish-brown layer over many urban areas.

Nitrogen oxides form when fuel is burned at high temperatures, as in a combustion process. The primary sources of NOx are motor vehicles, electric utilities, and other industrial, commercial, and residential sources that burn fuels.

Motor Vehicles, 49%; Utilities, 27%; Industrial/Commercial/Residential, 19%; All Other Sources, 5%

Reasons for Concern

Plant ImageNOx

  • is one of the main ingredients involved in the formation of ground-level ozone, which can trigger serious respiratory problems.

  • reacts to form nitrate particles, acid aerosols, as well as NO2, which also cause respiratory problems.

  • contributes to formation of acid rain.

  • contributes to nutrient overload that deteriorates water quality.

  • contributes to atmospheric particles, that cause visibility impairment most noticeable in national parks.

  • reacts to form toxic chemicals.

  • contributes to global warming.

NOx and the pollutants formed from NOx can be transported over long distances, following the pattern of prevailing winds in the U.S. This means that problems associated with NOx are not confined to areas where NOx are emitted. Therefore, controlling NOx is often most effective if done from a regional perspective, rather than focusing on sources in one local area.

NOx emissions are increasing.

Since 1970, EPA has tracked emissions of the six principal air pollutants - carbon monoxide, lead, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds. Emissions of all of these pollutants have decreased significantly except for NOx which has increased approximately 10 percent over this period

How can Nitrogen Oxides be Removed from the Environment?

Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is a proven and effective method to reduce nitrogen oxides which is an air pollutant associated with the power generation process. Nitrogen oxides are a contributor to ground level ozone. 

How does Selective Catalytic Reduction work?

SCR Systems work similar to a catalytic converter used to reduce automobile emissions. Prior to exhaust gases going up the smokestack, they will pass through the SCR System where anhydrous ammonia reacts with nitrogen oxide and converts it to nitrogen and water.

For more information call us at: 832-758-0027

 

* Some of the above information from the Department of Energy website with permission.


 

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